Wdesk | Document
falsefalse--12-31--12-31FYFY201820182018-12-3110-K000081376200010345630YesYesfalsefalseLarge Accelerated FilerNon-accelerated FilerfalsefalsefalsefalseNoNoYesNoIEPP5YP3YP4YP2Y8.0713.841.160.000.9612.621735643071735643071913660971913660971735643071735643071913660971913660978.0714.8011.46530000002037-12-312029-12-312033-12-312024-12-31P30YP39YP40YP1YP5YP3Y30 days2 days137000000161000000180000000 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 2018-06-29 0000813762 2019-02-28 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember 2019-02-28 0000813762 2017-12-31 0000813762 2018-12-31 0000813762 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ParentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ParentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ParentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ParentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ParentMember 2015-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2015-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ParentMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 2015-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ParentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2015-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2015-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:ParentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:ParentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2015-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:ParentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember 2015-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:ParentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:ParentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2015-12-31 0000813762 iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:MetalsSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherSegmentsAndHoldingCompanyMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:MiningsegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:HomeFashionSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:RealEstateSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveFoodPackagingandHomeFashionSegmentsMemberMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2015-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:ParentMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:ParentMember 2015-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:CvrEnergyIncMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ArlMember iep:RailcarSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:PepBoysMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2016-02-04 2016-02-04 0000813762 iep:CVRNitrogenMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2016-04-01 2016-04-01 0000813762 iep:FederalMogulMember 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesGPMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:FederalMogulMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:CvrPartnersLpMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:FerrousResourcesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentFundsMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ArlMember iep:RailcarSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:FederalMogulMember 2018-10-01 0000813762 iep:CvrEnergyIncMember 2018-08-01 2018-08-01 0000813762 iep:ViskaseMember iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:SecondMortgageMember iep:RealEstateSegmentMember 2017-08-01 2017-08-31 0000813762 iep:RealEstateSegmentMember 2017-08-01 2017-08-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentFundsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:AriMember 2018-12-05 2018-12-05 0000813762 iep:FederalMogulMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:FederalMogulMember 2018-10-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:PrincipalOwnersAndAffiliatesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:RealEstateSegmentMember 2018-08-01 2018-08-31 0000813762 iep:CvrRefiningLpMember iep:EnergySegmentMember us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember 2019-01-29 2019-01-29 0000813762 iep:ViskaseMember iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AAMCOandPrecisionTuneMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:TropicanaMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:CvrRefiningLpMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:TropicanaMember 2018-10-01 0000813762 iep:CvrRefiningLpMember 2018-08-01 2018-08-01 0000813762 iep:FederalMogulMember 2017-01-01 2017-01-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FirstMortgageMember iep:RealEstateSegmentMember 2017-08-01 2017-08-31 0000813762 iep:TropicanaMember 2018-10-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ViskaseMember iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-01-31 0000813762 iep:TropicanaMember 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 0000813762 iep:TropicanaMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:CvrRefiningLpMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ArlMember iep:RailcarSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:AriMember 2018-10-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:FerrousResourcesMember 2018-12-05 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember iep:IcahnEnterprisesGPMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ExtendedwarrantiesMember us-gaap:DifferenceBetweenRevenueGuidanceInEffectBeforeAndAfterTopic606Member iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-01-01 0000813762 us-gaap:NondesignatedMember us-gaap:OtherOperatingIncomeExpenseMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DifferenceBetweenRevenueGuidanceInEffectBeforeAndAfterTopic606Member iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-01-01 0000813762 iep:NetcashprovidedbyoperatingactivitiesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:RestrictedCashMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NondesignatedMember us-gaap:OtherOperatingIncomeExpenseMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:CashheldatconsolidatedaffiliatedpartnershipsMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember 2019-01-01 0000813762 iep:EnergySegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherIncomeMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DifferenceBetweenRevenueGuidanceInEffectBeforeAndAfterTopic606Member iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-01-01 0000813762 iep:NetcashprovidedbyoperatingactivitiesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DifferenceBetweenRevenueGuidanceInEffectBeforeAndAfterTopic606Member 2018-01-01 0000813762 iep:EnergySegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:EnergySegmentMember us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember 2019-01-01 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherIncomeMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 0000813762 iep:RestrictedCashMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:ViskaseMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:CashheldatconsolidatedaffiliatedpartnershipsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:SellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember iep:AccountspayableaccruedexpensesandotherliabilitiesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember iep:AccountspayableaccruedexpensesandotherliabilitiesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember iep:DueFromBrokerMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember iep:CashheldatconsolidatedaffiliatedpartnershipsandrestrictedcashMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember iep:CashheldatconsolidatedaffiliatedpartnershipsandrestrictedcashMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:InvestmentsMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:InventoriesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:SecuritiesSoldNotYetPurchasedMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember iep:DuetobrokersMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember iep:IntangibleassetsnetMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember iep:DueFromBrokerMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:InvestmentsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember iep:IntangibleassetsnetMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:DebtMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:InventoriesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:SecuritiesSoldNotYetPurchasedMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember iep:DuetobrokersMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesHoldingsMember us-gaap:DebtMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:MaximumMember naics:ZZ325311 iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:MaximumMember naics:ZZ324110 iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:MinimumMember naics:ZZ325311 iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:CvrEnergyIncMember srt:MinimumMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:CvrEnergyIncMember srt:MaximumMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:MinimumMember naics:ZZ324110 iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentMember iep:PurchasesfromrelatedpartyMember us-gaap:EquityMethodInvesteeMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:PurchasesfromrelatedpartyMember iep:AcfMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentinfundsMember iep:PrincipalOwnersAndAffiliatesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:A767LeasingMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:RailcarcomponentsalesMember iep:AcfMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:PurchasesfromrelatedpartyMember iep:AcfMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OperatingExpenseMember iep:InsightPortfolioGroupLLCMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentinfundsMember iep:PrincipalOwnersAndAffiliatesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ExpenseSharingAgreementMember iep:ConsolidatedVIEMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:A767LeasingMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 sic:Z7600 us-gaap:EquityMethodInvesteeMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:PrincipalOwnersAndAffiliatesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OperatingExpenseMember iep:InsightPortfolioGroupLLCMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:PurchasesfromrelatedpartyMember us-gaap:EquityMethodInvesteeMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:PurchasesfromrelatedpartyMember iep:AcfMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:ExpenseSharingAgreementMember iep:ConsolidatedVIEMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:PrincipalOwnersAndAffiliatesMember 2016-02-29 2016-02-29 0000813762 iep:RailcarcomponentsalesMember iep:AcfMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 sic:Z7600 us-gaap:EquityMethodInvesteeMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:ExpenseSharingAgreementMember iep:ConsolidatedVIEMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:PurchasesfromrelatedpartyMember us-gaap:EquityMethodInvesteeMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentinfundsMember iep:PrincipalOwnersAndAffiliatesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentinfundsMember iep:PrincipalOwnersAndAffiliatesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 sic:Z7600 us-gaap:EquityMethodInvesteeMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:RailcarcomponentsalesMember iep:AcfMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentinfundsMember iep:PrincipalOwnersAndAffiliatesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OperatingExpenseMember iep:InsightPortfolioGroupLLCMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:PurchasesfromrelatedpartyMember us-gaap:EquityMethodInvesteeMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherInvestmentsMember iep:OtherSegmentsAndHoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherInvestmentsMember iep:OtherSegmentsAndHoldingCompanyMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentsMember iep:OtherSegmentsAndHoldingCompanyMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherSegmentsAndHoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentsMember iep:OtherSegmentsAndHoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherSegmentsAndHoldingCompanyMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:HerbalifeMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:HertzMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherSegmentsAndHoldingCompanyMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:HerbalifeMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherSegmentsAndHoldingCompanyMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:HertzMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:HerbalifeMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:HerbalifeMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:HerbalifeMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:HertzMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:HertzMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:HertzMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:ConsumerNonCyclicalMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:ConsumerNonCyclicalMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IndustrialMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ConsumerCyclicalMember us-gaap:DebtSecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:EnergySectorMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DebtSecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:TechnologyMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ConsumerCyclicalMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:EnergySectorMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ConsumerCyclicalMember us-gaap:DebtSecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IndustrialMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DebtSecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:ConsumerCyclicalMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:TechnologyMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:BasicMaterialsMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:BasicMaterialsMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:FinancialMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:FinancialMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:InterestRateContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:EquityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:InterestRateContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:EquityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommodityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ForeignExchangeContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:InterestRateContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:EquityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommodityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CreditRiskContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CreditRiskContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommodityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CreditRiskContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CreditDefaultSwapMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CreditRiskContractMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NondesignatedMember us-gaap:OtherOperatingIncomeExpenseMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CreditDefaultSwapMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:NetGainFromInvestmentActivitiesMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommodityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:CommoditycontractsnotconsideredprobableofsettlementMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CreditRiskContractMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:CommoditycontractsnotconsideredprobableofsettlementMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember us-gaap:EquityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:AccruedExpensesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember us-gaap:EquityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:AccruedExpensesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:AccruedExpensesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember us-gaap:CreditRiskContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember us-gaap:CommodityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:AccruedExpensesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember us-gaap:CommodityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:AccruedExpensesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AccruedExpensesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember us-gaap:CommodityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember us-gaap:EquityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember us-gaap:CommodityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AccruedExpensesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember us-gaap:CreditRiskContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember us-gaap:CreditRiskContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:AccruedExpensesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember us-gaap:EquityContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember us-gaap:CreditRiskContractMember us-gaap:NondesignatedMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommodityContractMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommodityContractMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:EquityContractMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:EquityContractMember iep:InvestmentSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AutomotivepartsMember 2018-10-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:UnclassifiedIndefinitelivedIntangibleAssetsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:UnclassifiedIndefinitelivedIntangibleAssetsMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2018-01-01 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2017-01-01 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 2018-01-01 0000813762 2017-01-01 0000813762 iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2017-01-01 0000813762 iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:AssetsLeasedToOthersMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:LandMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:AssetsLeasedToOthersMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:MachineryEquipmentAndFurnitureMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ConstructionInProgressMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:MachineryEquipmentAndFurnitureMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:LandMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ConstructionInProgressMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:MinimumMember us-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:MaximumMember us-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:MaximumMember iep:MachineryEquipmentAndFurnitureMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:MinimumMember iep:MachineryEquipmentAndFurnitureMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:MinimumMember us-gaap:AssetsLeasedToOthersMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:MaximumMember us-gaap:AssetsLeasedToOthersMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:EnergySegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:MiningsegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:A2024NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:RealEstateSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:A2020NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:A2025NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:HomeFashionSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:MetalsSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:A2022NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:A2024NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:HomeFashionSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:New2022NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:ReportingSegmentsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:RealEstateSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:A2025NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:New2022NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:A2022NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:MiningsegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:A2020NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:MetalsSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:ReportingSegmentsMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:CVR2022NotesMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:A2025NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-06 0000813762 iep:IEPAutoCreditFacilityMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:A2024NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-01-18 0000813762 us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:CVRPartners2023NotesMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:New2022NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-01-18 0000813762 iep:CVRRefiningCreditFacilityMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ViskasecreditfacilityMember iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:New2022NotesMember iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-12-06 0000813762 iep:ViskasecreditfacilityMember iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:CVRRefiningCreditFacilityMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:IEPAutoCreditFacilityMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember 2017-01-01 2017-01-31 0000813762 us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember 2017-01-01 2017-01-31 0000813762 2017-01-01 2017-01-31 0000813762 iep:RailcarSegmentMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:MiningsegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:RealEstateSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:MetalsSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:HomeFashionSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:FoodPackagingSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:RailcarSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:HoldingCompanyMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveservicesrevenueMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveservicesrevenueMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:PartsnetsalesMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:PartsnetsalesMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:PartsnetsalesMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AutomotiveservicesrevenueMember iep:AutomotiveSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:RailcarSegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:MetalsSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:HomeFashionSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:RailcarSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:RealEstateSegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:MiningsegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:PublicUtilitiesInventoryPetroleumProductsMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:NitrogenfertilizerproductsMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:PublicUtilitiesInventoryPetroleumProductsMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:PublicUtilitiesInventoryPetroleumProductsMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:NitrogenfertilizerproductsMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:NitrogenfertilizerproductsMember iep:EnergySegmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:SegmentgeographicOtherMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:SegmentgeographicOtherMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 country:US 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:SegmentgeographicOtherMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:SegmentgeographicOtherMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 country:US 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 country:US 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:SegmentgeographicOtherMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 country:US 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 country:US 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:RailcarSegmentMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:SegmentDiscontinuedOperationsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:TropicanaMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:AmericanRailcarIndustriesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:TropicanaMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:FederalMogulMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:TropicanaMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:AmericanRailcarIndustriesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:FederalMogulMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:AmericanRailcarIndustriesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:FederalMogulMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:TropicanaMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:FederalMogulMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleMember iep:AmericanRailcarIndustriesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DisposalGroupHeldForSaleOrDisposedOfBySaleNotDiscontinuedOperationsMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ViskaseMember srt:MinimumMember iep:OtherForeignCountriesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AmericanEntertainmentPropertiesCorpMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:CvrEnergyIncMember stpr:KS 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ViskaseMember country:US 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:CvrEnergyIncMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ViskaseMember srt:MaximumMember iep:OtherForeignCountriesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AmericanEntertainmentPropertiesCorpMember srt:MaximumMember country:US 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:ViskaseMember srt:MinimumMember country:US 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:CvrEnergyIncMember srt:MinimumMember stpr:KS 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AmericanEntertainmentPropertiesCorpMember srt:MinimumMember country:US 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:LossOnDebtExtinguishmentMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:SettlementlosswithtaxingauthorityMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherIncomeLossNotSpecifiedMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:SettlementlosswithtaxingauthorityMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ForeignCurrencyGainLossMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ForeignCurrencyGainLossMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IncomelossfromnonconsolidatedaffiliatesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ForeignCurrencyGainLossMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:LossOnDebtExtinguishmentMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:NonservicepensionandotherpostretirementbenefitsexpenseMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:LossOnDebtExtinguishmentMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:DividendexpenseMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:SettlementlosswithtaxingauthorityMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherderivativegainMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:NonservicepensionandotherpostretirementbenefitsexpenseMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:DividendexpenseMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherderivativegainMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherIncomeLossNotSpecifiedMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:NonservicepensionandotherpostretirementbenefitsexpenseMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherderivativegainMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IncomelossfromnonconsolidatedaffiliatesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:OtherIncomeLossNotSpecifiedMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:DividendexpenseMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IncomelossfromnonconsolidatedaffiliatesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AccruedExpensesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesGPMember iep:PrincipalOwnersAndAffiliatesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:StarfireHoldingCorporationMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:AccruedExpensesAndOtherLiabilitiesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 iep:FederalMogulProductsInc.Member 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ExchangeTradedFundsMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:SovereignDebtStateGovernmentUnspecifiedMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:SovereignDebtStateGovernmentUnspecifiedMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommonStockMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:MutualFundMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ExchangeTradedFundsMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ExchangeTradedFundsMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:SovereignDebtStateGovernmentUnspecifiedMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:SovereignDebtStateGovernmentUnspecifiedMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:SovereignDebtStateGovernmentUnspecifiedMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueMeasuredAtNetAssetValuePerShareMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:FairValueMeasuredAtNetAssetValuePerShareMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:MutualFundMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:SovereignDebtStateGovernmentUnspecifiedMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommonStockMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ExchangeTradedFundsMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ExchangeTradedFundsMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:MutualFundMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommonStockMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:MutualFundMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:MutualFundMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:MutualFundMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommonStockMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommonStockMember us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:CommonStockMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:ExchangeTradedFundsMember us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 us-gaap:SubsequentEventMember 2019-02-26 2019-02-26 0000813762 2017-01-01 2017-03-31 0000813762 2017-04-01 2017-06-30 0000813762 2018-01-01 2018-03-31 0000813762 2018-07-01 2018-09-30 0000813762 2018-10-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 2017-07-01 2017-09-30 0000813762 2018-04-01 2018-06-30 0000813762 2017-10-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember iep:A2020NotesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember iep:A2025NotesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember iep:A2020NotesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember iep:A2025NotesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember iep:New2022NotesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember iep:A2022NotesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember iep:A2024NotesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember iep:New2022NotesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember iep:A2024NotesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember iep:A2022NotesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember 2016-12-31 0000813762 srt:ParentCompanyMember 2015-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesGPMember srt:ParentCompanyMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember iep:A2020NotesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember iep:New2022NotesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember us-gaap:MortgagesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember iep:A2025NotesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember iep:A2022NotesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember iep:A2024NotesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember iep:A2020NotesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember us-gaap:MortgagesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember iep:A2025NotesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember iep:A2024NotesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember iep:New2022NotesMember 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember iep:A2022NotesMember 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember 2016-01-01 2016-12-31 0000813762 iep:IcahnEnterprisesGPMember srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember 2018-01-01 2018-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember 2017-01-01 2017-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember 2015-12-31 0000813762 srt:GuarantorSubsidiariesMember 2016-12-31 xbrli:shares iso4217:USD xbrli:shares iso4217:USD utreg:bbl xbrli:pure
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2018
(Commission File Number)
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
(Telephone Number)
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
001-09516
ICAHN ENTERPRISES L.P.
Delaware
13-3398766
 
767 Fifth Avenue, Suite 4700
New York, NY 10153
(212) 702-4300
 
 
 
 
 
 
333-118021-01
ICAHN ENTERPRISES HOLDINGS L.P.
Delaware
13-3398767
 
767 Fifth Avenue, Suite 4700
New York, NY 10153
(212) 702-4300
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Depositary Units of Icahn Enterprises L.P.
Representing Limited Partner Interests
 
NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined by Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Icahn Enterprises L.P. Yes x No o          Icahn Enterprises Holdings L.P. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
Icahn Enterprises L.P. Yes o No x             Icahn Enterprises Holdings L.P. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Icahn Enterprises L.P. Yes x No o             Icahn Enterprises Holdings L.P. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).     
Icahn Enterprises L.P. Yes x No o             Icahn Enterprises Holdings L.P. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (Check One):
Icahn Enterprises L.P.
 
Icahn Enterprises Holdings L.P.
Large Accelerated Filer x
Accelerated Filer o
 
Large Accelerated Filer o
Accelerated Filer o
Non-accelerated Filer o
Smaller Reporting Company o
 
Non-accelerated Filer x
Smaller Reporting Company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Icahn Enterprises L.P. Yes o No x          Icahn Enterprises Holdings L.P. Yes o No x
The aggregate market value of Icahn Enterprises' depositary units held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 29, 2018, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based upon the closing price of depositary units on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on such date was $1,123 million.
As of February 28, 2019, there were 191,374,372 of Icahn Enterprises' depositary units outstanding.



ICAHN ENTERPRISES L.P.
ICAHN ENTERPRISES HOLDINGS L.P.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
Page
No.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 



i


EXPLANATORY NOTE

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Report") is a joint report being filed by Icahn Enterprises L.P. and Icahn Enterprises Holdings L.P. Each registrant hereto is filing on its own behalf all of the information contained in this Report that relates to such registrant. Each registrant hereto is not filing any information that does not relate to such registrant, and therefore makes no representation as to any such information.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Report contains certain statements that are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended ("the Exchange Act"), or by Public Law 104-67. All statements included in this Report, other than statements that relate solely to historical fact, are “forward-looking statements.” Such statements include, but are not limited to, any statement that may predict, forecast, indicate or imply future results, performance, achievements or events, or any statement that may relate to strategies, plans or objectives for, or potential results of, future operations, financial results, financial condition, business prospects, growth strategy or liquidity, and are based upon management’s current plans and beliefs or current estimates of future results or trends. Forward-looking statements can generally be identified by phrases such as “believes,” “expects,” “potential,” “continues,” “may,” “should,” “seeks,” “predicts,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “projects,” “estimates,” “plans,” “could,” “designed,” “should be” and other similar expressions that denote expectations of future or conditional events rather than statements of fact.
Forward-looking statements include certain statements made under the caption, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” under Item 7 of this Report, but also forward-looking statements that appear in other parts of this Report. Forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on certain assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from trends, plans, or expectations set forth in the forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties may include the risks and uncertainties described elsewhere in this Report, including under the caption "Risk Factors," under Item 1A of this Report. Additionally, there may be other factors not presently known to us or which we currently consider to be immaterial that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements.



1


PART I

Item 1. Business.
Business Overview
Icahn Enterprises L.P. (“Icahn Enterprises”) is a master limited partnership formed in Delaware on February 17, 1987. Icahn Enterprises Holdings L.P. (“Icahn Enterprises Holdings”) is a limited partnership formed in Delaware on February 17, 1987. References to "we," "our" or "us" herein include both Icahn Enterprises and Icahn Enterprises Holdings and their subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires.
Icahn Enterprises owns a 99% limited partner interest in Icahn Enterprises Holdings. Icahn Enterprises G.P. Inc. (“Icahn Enterprises GP”), which is indirectly owned and controlled by Mr. Carl C. Icahn, owns a 1% general partner interest in each of Icahn Enterprises and Icahn Enterprises Holdings as of December 31, 2018. Icahn Enterprises Holdings and its subsidiaries own substantially all of our assets and liabilities and conduct substantially all of our operations. Therefore, the financial results of Icahn Enterprises and Icahn Enterprises Holdings are substantially the same, with differences relating primarily to the allocation of the general partner interest, which is reflected as an aggregate 1.99% general partner interest in the financial statements of Icahn Enterprises. Mr. Icahn and his affiliates owned approximately 91.7% of Icahn Enterprises' outstanding depositary units as of February 28, 2019.
We conduct and plan to continue to conduct our activities in such a manner as not to be deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the "Investment Company Act”). Therefore, no more than 40% of our total assets can be invested in investment securities, as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act. In addition, we do not invest or intend to invest in securities as our primary business. We intend to structure our investments to continue to be taxed as a partnership rather than as a corporation under the applicable publicly traded partnership rules of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended.
Mr. Icahn's estate has been designed to assure the stability and continuation of Icahn Enterprises with no need to monetize his interests for estate tax or other purposes. In the event of Mr. Icahn's death, control of Mr. Icahn's interests in Icahn Enterprises and its general partner will be placed in charitable and other trusts under the control of senior Icahn Enterprises executives and family members.
We are a diversified holding company owning subsidiaries engaged in the following operating businesses: Investment, Energy, Automotive, Food Packaging, Metals, Real Estate, Home Fashion, Mining and, prior to September 2018, Railcar, as discussed further below.
Business Strategy and Core Strengths
The Icahn Strategy
Across all of our businesses, our success is based on a simple formula: we seek to find undervalued companies in the Graham & Dodd tradition, a methodology for valuing stocks that primarily looks for deeply depressed prices. However, while the typical Graham & Dodd value investor purchases undervalued securities and waits for results, we often become actively involved in the companies we target. That activity may involve a broad range of approaches, from influencing the management of a target to take steps to improve shareholder value, to acquiring a controlling interest or outright ownership of the target company in order to implement changes that we believe are required to improve its business, and then operating and expanding that business. This activism has typically brought about very strong returns over the years.
Today, we are a diversified holding company owning subsidiaries engaged in eight diversified reporting segments. As of December 31, 2018, through our Investment segment, we have significant positions in various investments, which include Herbalife Ltd. (HLF), Cheniere Energy Inc. (LNG), Newell Brands, Inc. (NWL), Dell Technologies Inc. Class C (DELL), Diamondback Energy, Inc. (FANG), Xerox Corporation (XRX), Navistar International Corp. (NAV), Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. (HTZ) and Conduent Incorporated (CNDT).
Several of our operating businesses started out as investment positions in debt or equity securities, held either directly by us or Mr. Icahn. Those positions ultimately resulted in control or complete ownership of the target company. For example, in 2012, we acquired a controlling interest in CVR Energy, Inc. (‘‘CVR Energy’’), which started out as a position in our Investment segment and is now an operating subsidiary that comprises our Energy segment. The acquisition of CVR Energy, like our other operating subsidiaries, reflects our opportunistic approach to value creation, through which returns may be obtained by, among other things, promoting change through minority positions at targeted companies in our Investment segment or by acquiring control of those target companies that we believe we could run more profitably ourselves.
During the next several years, we see a favorable opportunity to follow an activist strategy that centers on the purchase of target stock and the subsequent removal of any barriers that might interfere with a friendly purchase offer from a strong buyer.

2


Alternatively, in appropriate circumstances, we or our subsidiaries may become the buyer of target companies, adding them to our portfolio of operating subsidiaries, thereby expanding our operations through such opportunistic acquisitions. We believe that the companies that we target for our activist activities are undervalued for many reasons, often including inept management. Unfortunately for the individual investor, in particular, and the economy, in general, many poor management teams are often unaccountable and very difficult to remove.
Unlike the individual investor, we have the wherewithal to purchase companies that we feel we can operate more effectively than incumbent management. In addition, through our Investment segment, we are in a position to pursue our activist strategy by purchasing stock or debt positions and trying to promulgate change through a variety of activist approaches, ranging from speaking and negotiating with Boards of Directors and Chief Executive Officers ("CEO") to proxy fights, tender offers and acquiring control. We work diligently to enhance value for all shareholders and we believe that the best way to do this is to make underperforming management teams and Boards of Directors accountable or to replace them.
The Chairman of the Board of Directors of our general partner, Carl C. Icahn, has been an activist investor since 1980. Mr. Icahn believes that the current environment continues to be conducive to activism. Many major companies have substantial amounts of cash. We believe that they are hoarding cash, rather than spending it, because they do not believe investments in their business will translate to earnings.
We believe that one of the best ways for many cash-rich companies to achieve increased earnings is to use their large amounts of excess cash, together with advantageous borrowing opportunities, to purchase other companies in their industries and take advantage of the meaningful synergies that could result. In our opinion, the CEOs and Boards of Directors of undervalued companies that would be acquisition targets are the major road blocks to this logical use of assets to increase value, because we believe those CEOs and Boards of Directors are not willing to give up their power and perquisites, even if they have done a poor job in administering the companies they have been running. In addition, acquirers are often unwilling to undertake the arduous task of launching a hostile campaign. This is precisely the situation in which we believe a strong activist catalyst is necessary.
We believe that the activist catalyst adds value because, for companies with strong balance sheets, acquisitions of their weaker industry rivals is often extremely compelling financially. We further believe that there are many transactions that make economic sense, even at a large premium over market. Acquirers can use their excess cash, that is earning a very low return, and/or borrow at the advantageous interest rates now available, to acquire a target company. In either case, an acquirer can add the target company’s earnings and the income from synergies to the acquirer’s bottom line, at a relatively low cost. But for these potential acquirers to act, the target company must be willing to at least entertain an offer. We believe that often the activist can step in and remove the obstacles that a target generally may seek to use to prevent an acquisition.
It is our belief that our strategy will continue to produce strong results into the future. We believe that the strong cash flow and asset coverage from our operating subsidiaries will allow us to maintain a strong balance sheet and ample liquidity.
Core Strengths
We believe that our core strengths include: identifying and acquiring undervalued assets and businesses, often through the purchase of distressed securities; increasing value through management, financial or other operational changes; and managing complex legal, regulatory or financial issues, which may include bankruptcy or insolvency, environmental, zoning, permitting and licensing issues.
The key elements of our business strategy include the following:
Capitalize on Growth Opportunities in our Existing Businesses.  We believe that we have developed a strong portfolio of businesses with experienced management teams. We may expand our existing businesses if appropriate opportunities are identified, as well as use our established businesses as a platform for additional acquisitions in the same or related areas.
Drive Accountability and Financial Discipline in the Management of our Business.  Our CEO is accountable directly to our Board of Directors of our general partner, including the Chairman, Carl C. Icahn, and has day-to-day responsibility, in consultation with our Chairman, for general oversight of our business segments. We continually evaluate our operating subsidiaries with a view towards maximizing value and cost efficiencies, bringing an owner's perspective to our operating businesses. In each of these businesses, we assemble senior management teams with the expertise to run their businesses and boards of directors to oversee the management of those businesses. Each management team is responsible for the day-to-day operations of its businesses and directly accountable to its board of directors.
Seek to Acquire Undervalued Assets.  We intend to continue to make investments in businesses that we believe are undervalued and have potential for growth. We also seek to capitalize on investment opportunities arising from market inefficiencies, economic or market trends that have not been identified and reflected in market value, or complex or special situations. Certain opportunities may arise from companies that experience disappointing financial results, liquidity or capital needs, lowered credit ratings, revised industry forecasts or legal complications. We may acquire businesses or assets directly or

3


we may establish an ownership position through the purchase of debt or equity securities in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions.
Use Activism to Unlock Value. As described above, we become actively involved in companies in which we invest.  Such activism may involve a broad range of activities, from trying to influence management in a proxy fight, to taking outright control of a company in order to bring about the change we think is required to unlock value. The key is flexibility, permanent capital and the willingness and ability to have a long-term investment horizon.
Business Description
Icahn Enterprises began as American Real Estate Partners L.P. in 1987 and currently operates a portfolio of eight diversified reporting segments, as discussed above. With the exception of our Investment segment, our operating segments primarily comprise independently operated businesses that we have obtained a controlling interest in through execution of our business strategy. Our Investment segment derives revenues from gains and losses from investment transactions. Our other operating segments derive revenues principally from net sales of various products, primarily within our Energy and Automotive segments, which together accounted for the significant majority of our consolidated net sales for each of the three years ended December 31, 2018. Our other operating segments' revenues are also derived through various other revenue streams which primarily consists of automotive services and real estate leasing operations. The majority of our consolidated revenues are derived from customers in the United States. Our Food Packaging and Mining segments account for the majority of our consolidated revenues derived from customers outside the United States.
Investment
Our Investment segment is comprised of various private investment funds ("Investment Funds") in which we have general partner interests and through which we invest our proprietary capital. We and certain of Mr. Icahn's wholly-owned affiliates are the sole investors in the Investment Funds. As general partner, we provide investment advisory and certain administrative and back office services to the Investment Funds but do not provide such services to any other entities, individuals or accounts. Interests in the Investment Funds are not offered to outside investors.
Investment Strategy
The investment strategy of the Investment Funds is set and led by Mr. Icahn. The Investment Funds seek to acquire securities in companies that trade at a discount to inherent value as determined by various metrics, including replacement cost, break-up value, cash flow and earnings power and liquidation value.
The Investment Funds utilize a process-oriented, research-intensive, value-based investment approach. This approach generally involves three critical steps: (i) fundamental credit, valuation and capital structure analysis; (ii) intense legal and tax analysis of fulcrum issues such as litigation and regulation that often affect valuation; and (iii) combined business valuation analysis and legal and tax review to establish a strategy for gaining an attractive risk-adjusted investment position. This approach focuses on exploiting market dislocations or misjudgments that may result from market euphoria, litigation, complex contingent liabilities, corporate malfeasance and weak corporate governance, general economic conditions or market cycles and complex and inappropriate capital structures.
The Investment Funds are often activist investors ready to take the steps necessary to seek to unlock value, including tender offers, proxy contests and demands for management accountability. The Investment Funds may employ a number of strategies and are permitted to invest across a variety of industries and types of securities, including long and short equities, long and short bonds, bank debt and other corporate obligations, options, swaps and other derivative instruments thereof, risk arbitrage and capital structure arbitrage and other special situations. The Investment Funds invest a material portion of their capital in publicly traded equity and debt securities of companies that they believe to be undervalued by the marketplace. The Investment Funds often take significant positions in the companies in which they invest.
Income
Our Investment segment's income or loss is driven by the amount of funds allocated to the Investment Funds and the performance of the underlying investments in the Investment Funds. Funds allocated to the Investment Funds are based on the net contributions and redemptions by our Holding Company and by Mr. Icahn and his affiliates.
Affiliate Investments
We and Mr. Icahn, along with the Investment Funds, have entered into a covered affiliate agreement, which was amended on March 31, 2011, pursuant to which Mr. Icahn agreed (on behalf of himself and certain of his affiliates, excluding Icahn Enterprises, Icahn Enterprises Holdings and their subsidiaries) to be bound by certain restrictions on their investments in any assets that we deem suitable for the Investment Funds, other than government and agency bonds and cash equivalents, unless otherwise approved by our Audit Committee. In addition, Mr. Icahn and such affiliates continue to have the right to co-invest

4


with the Investment Funds. We have no interest in, nor do we generate any income from, any such co-investments, which have been and may continue to be substantial.
Energy
We conduct our Energy segment through our majority owned subsidiary, CVR Energy. We acquired a controlling interest in CVR Energy in 2012 through a cash tender offer for outstanding shares of CVR Energy common stock. CVR Energy is a reporting company under the Exchange Act and files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") that are publicly available.
CVR Energy is a diversified holding company primarily engaged in the petroleum refining and nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing businesses through its interests in CVR Refining, LP ("CVR Refining") and CVR Partners, LP ("CVR Partners"), respectively. CVR Refining is an independent petroleum refiner and marketer of high value transportation fuels. CVR Partners produces and markets nitrogen fertilizers in the form of ammonia and urea ammonium nitrate ("UAN").
CVR Energy has a general partner interest in CVR Refining and CVR Partners and also owns approximately 80.6% of the outstanding common units of CVR Refining and 34.4% of the outstanding common units of CVR Partners as of December 31, 2018. On August 1, 2018, CVR Energy completed an exchange offer whereby CVR Refining's public unitholders tendered a total of 21,625,106 common units of CVR Refining in exchange for 13,699,549 shares of CVR Energy common stock. As of December 31, 2018, we owned approximately 70.8% of the total outstanding common stock of CVR Energy. In addition, as of December 31, 2018, we directly owned approximately 3.9% of the total outstanding common units of CVR Refining.
On January 29, 2019, CVR Energy, pursuant to the exercise of its right under the partnership agreement of CVR Refining to purchase all of the issued and outstanding common units in CVR Refining, purchased the remaining common units of CVR Refining not already owned by CVR Energy, including the purchase of CVR Refining common units owned directly by us. As a result, as of January 29, 2019, CVR Energy owns all of the common units of CVR Refining and we no longer have any direct ownership in CVR Refining. In addition, the common units of CVR Refining have subsequently ceased to be publicly traded or listed on the New York Stock Exchange or any other national securities exchange.
Our Energy segment's net sales for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 represented approximately 67%, 64% and 62%, respectively, of our consolidated net sales, primarily from the sale of its petroleum products.
Products, Raw Materials and Supply
CVR Refining has the capability to process a variety of crude oil blends. CVR Refining's oil refineries in Coffeyville, Kansas and Wynnewood, Oklahoma have a combined capacity of 206,500 barrels per day. In addition to the use of third-party pipelines for the supply of crude oil, CVR Refining has an extensive gathering system consisting of logistics assets that are owned, leased or part of a joint venture operation. Petroleum refining product yield includes gasoline, diesel fuel, pet coke and other refined products such as natural gas liquids, asphalt and jet fuel among other products.
CVR Partners produces and distributes nitrogen fertilizer products, which are used by farmers to improve the yield and quality of their crops. The principal products are UAN and ammonia. CVR Partners' Coffeyville, Kansas facility uses pet coke to produce nitrogen fertilizer and is supplied primarily by its adjacent crude oil refinery pursuant to a renewable long-term agreement with CVR Refining. Historically, the Coffeyville nitrogen fertilizer plant has obtained the remainder of its pet coke requirements from third parties such as other Midwestern refineries or pet coke brokers at spot-prices. CVR Partners' East Dubuque, Illinois facility uses natural gas to produce nitrogen fertilizer. The East Dubuque facility is able to purchase natural gas at competitive prices due to its connection to the Norther Natural Gas interstate pipeline system, which is within one mile of the facility, and the ANR Pipeline Company pipeline.
Customers, Marketing and Distribution
Customers for CVR Refining's products primarily include retailers, railroads, and farm cooperatives and other refiners/marketers in Group 3 of the PADD II region because of their relative proximity to the refineries and pipeline access. CVR Refining sells bulk products to long-standing customers at spot market prices based on a Group 3 basis differential to prices quoted on the New York Mercantile Exchange, which are reported by industry market-related indices such as Platts and Oil Price Information Service. CVR Refining's rack sales are at posted prices that are influenced by competitor pricing and Group 3 spot market differentials. Additionally, CVR Refining supplies jet fuel to the U.S. Department of Defense. For the year ended December 31, 2018, only one customer accounted for 10% or more of CVR Refining's net sales.
CVR Refining focuses its marketing efforts in the central mid-continent area because of its relative proximity to its refineries and pipeline access. CVR Refining engages in rack marketing, which is the supply of product through tanker trucks and railcars directly to customers located in close geographic proximity to its refineries and to customers at throughput terminals on third-party refined products distribution systems. CVR Refining also makes bulk sales (sales into third-party pipelines) into mid-continent markets and other destinations utilizing third-party product pipeline networks.

5


CVR Partners sells UAN products to retailers and distributors and ammonia to agricultural and industrial customers. Its products are primarily distributed by truck or by railcar. Given the nature of its business, and consistent with industry practice, CVR Partners does not have long-term minimum purchase contracts with most of its agricultural customers.
Competition
CVR Energy's petroleum business competes primarily on the basis of price, reliability of supply, availability of multiple grades of products and location. The principal competitive factors affecting its refining operations are cost of crude oil and other feedstocks, refinery complexity, refinery efficiency, refinery product mix and product distribution and transportation costs. The location of refineries provides the petroleum business with a reliable supply of crude oil and a transportation cost advantage over its competitors. The petroleum business primarily competes against five refineries operated in the mid-continent region. In addition to these refineries, the refineries compete against trading companies, as well as other refineries located outside the region that are linked to the mid-continent market through an extensive product pipeline system. These competitors include refineries located near the Gulf Coast, the Great Lakes and the Texas panhandle regions.
The nitrogen fertilizer business has experienced, and expects to continue to meet, significant levels of competition from current and potential competitors, many of whom have significantly greater financial and other resources. Competition in the nitrogen fertilizer industry is dominated by price considerations. However, during the spring and fall application seasons, farming activities intensify and delivery capacity is a significant competitive factor. Domestic competition is intense due to customers' sophisticated buying tendencies and competitor strategies that focus on cost and service. The nitrogen fertilizer business also encounters competition from producers of fertilizer products manufactured in foreign countries. In certain cases, foreign producers of fertilizer who export to the United States may be subsidized by their respective governments.
Environmental Regulations
CVR Energy's petroleum and nitrogen fertilizer businesses are subject to extensive and frequently changing federal, state and local, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations governing the emission and release of hazardous substances into the environment, the treatment and discharge of waste water, and the storage, handling, use and transportation of petroleum and nitrogen products, and the characteristics and composition of gasoline, diesel fuels, UAN and ammonia. These laws and regulations, their underlying regulatory requirements, and the enforcement thereof, impact the petroleum business and operations and the nitrogen fertilizer business and operations by imposing:
restrictions on operations or the need to install enhanced or additional controls;
the need to obtain and comply with permits, licenses and authorizations;
liability for the investigation and remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater at current and former facilities (if any) and for off-site waste disposal locations; and
specifications for the products marketed by the petroleum business and the nitrogen fertilizer business, primarily gasoline, diesel fuel, UAN and ammonia.
CVR Energy's operations require numerous permits, licenses and authorizations. Failure to comply with these permits or environmental laws and regulations could result in fines, penalties or other sanctions or a revocation of CVR Energy's permits. In addition, the laws and regulations to which CVR Energy is subject to are often evolving and many of them have become more stringent or have become subject to more stringent interpretation or enforcement by federal or state agencies. These laws and regulations could result in increased capital, operating and compliance costs.
CVR Energy's businesses are also subject to, or impacted by, various other environmental laws and regulations such as the federal Clean Air Act, the federal Clean Water Act, release reporting requirements relating to the release of hazardous substances into the environment, certain fuel regulations, renewable fuel standards, as discussed below, and various other laws and regulations.
Renewable Fuel Standards
CVR Refining is subject to the renewable fuel standards which requires refiners to either blend "renewable fuels" with their transportation fuels or purchase renewable fuel credits, known as renewable identification numbers, in lieu of blending. See Item 1A, "Risk Factors" and Note 17, "Commitments and Contingencies," to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion.
Safety, Health and Security Matters
CVR Energy is subject to a number of federal and state laws and regulations related to safety, including the Occupational Safety and Health Act ("OSHA") and comparable state statutes, the purpose of which are to protect the health and safety of workers. CVR Energy is also subject to OSHA Process Safety Management regulations, which are designed to prevent or minimize the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable or explosive chemicals.

6


CVR Energy operates a comprehensive safety, health and security program, with participation by employees at all levels of the organization. They have developed comprehensive safety programs aimed at preventing OSHA recordable incidents. Despite CVR Energy's efforts to achieve excellence in its safety and health performance, there can be no assurances that there will not be accidents resulting in injuries or even fatalities. CVR Energy routinely audits its programs and considers improvements in its management systems.
Automotive
We conduct our Automotive segment through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Icahn Automotive Group LLC ("Icahn Automotive").
Icahn Automotive was formed by us to invest in and operate businesses involved in automotive repair and maintenance services as well as the distribution and sale of automotive aftermarket parts and accessories to end-user do-it-yourself customers, wholesale distributors, and professional auto mechanics. Icahn Automotive acquired IEH Auto Parts Holding LLC in 2015, The Pep Boys - Manny, Moe & Jack in 2016, the franchise businesses of Precision Tune Auto Care and American Driveline Systems, the franchisor of AAMCO and Cottman Transmission service centers, in 2017, and various other businesses in recent years.
Our Automotive segment's net sales for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 represented approximately 22%, 24% and 27%, respectively, of our consolidated net sales.
Products, Services and Customers
The automotive aftermarket industry is in the mature stage of its life cycle. Over the past decade, consumers have moved away from do-it-yourself (retail) toward do-it-for-me (services) due to increasing vehicle complexity and electronic content, as well as decreasing availability of diagnostic equipment and know-how. Consistent with this long-term trend, Icahn Automotive's long-term strategy is to grow its commercial parts sales to automotive services businesses as well to grow its own automotive service business, while maintaining its retail parts customer bases by offering the newest and broadest product assortment in the automotive aftermarket. Icahn Automotive provides its customers with access to over two million replacement parts for domestic and imported vehicles through an extensive network of suppliers. Icahn Automotive seeks to provide (i) an extensive selection of product offerings, (ii) competitive pricing, (iii) exceptional in-store service experience and (iv) superior delivery to its customers.
Suppliers
Icahn Automotive purchases parts from manufacturers and other distributors for sale in the aftermarket. Purchases are made based on current inventory or operational needs and are fulfilled by suppliers within short periods of time. During 2018, Icahn Automotive's ten largest suppliers accounted for approximately 48% of the merchandise purchased and one supplier accounted for more than 10% of the merchandise purchased. Icahn Automotive believes that the relationships that it has established with its suppliers are generally positive. In the past, Icahn Automotive has not experienced difficulty in obtaining satisfactory sources of supply and it believes that adequate alternative sources of supply exist, at similar cost, for the types of merchandise sold in its stores.
Competition
Icahn Automotive operates in a highly competitive environment. Icahn Automotive's competitors for automotive service include national and regional chains, automotive dealerships, and local independent service providers. Its competitors for distribution and sales of auto parts and accessories include general, full range and discount retailers, national and regional auto parts retailers, and online retailers which carry automotive parts and accessories. Icahn Automotive believes that its operations in both do-it-for-me and do-it-yourself differentiates it from most of their competitors.
Food Packaging
We conduct our Food Packaging segment through our majority owned subsidiary, Viskase Companies, Inc. ("Viskase"). We acquired a controlling interest in Viskase in 2010 from affiliates of Mr. Icahn in a common control transaction. In January 2018, we increased our ownership in Viskase as a result of a rights offering and as of December 31, 2018, we owned approximately 78.6% of the total outstanding common stock of Viskase. Viskase is a producer of cellulosic, fibrous and plastic casings used to prepare and package processed meat products. Approximately 71% of Viskase's net sales during 2018 were derived from customers outside the United States.
Metals
We conduct our Metals segment through our wholly-owned subsidiary, PSC Metals LLC, f/k/a, PSC Metals, Inc. (“PSC Metals”). We acquired PSC Metals in 2007 from affiliates of Mr. Icahn in a common control transaction. PSC Metals is principally engaged in the business of collecting, processing and selling ferrous and non-ferrous metals, as well as the

7


processing and distribution of steel pipe and plate products in the Midwest and Southern United States. PSC Metals collects industrial and obsolete scrap metal, processes it into reusable forms and supplies the recycled metals to its customers.
Real Estate
Our Real Estate operations consist primarily of rental real estate, property development and associated club activities. Our rental real estate operations consist primarily of office and industrial properties leased to single corporate tenants. Our property development operations are run primarily through a real estate investment, management and development subsidiary that focuses primarily on the construction and sale of single-family and multi-family homes, lots in subdivisions and planned communities, and raw land for residential development. Our property development locations also operate golf and club operations. In addition, our Real Estate operations also includes a hotel, timeshare and casino resort property in Aruba as well as a casino property in Atlantic City, New Jersey, which ceased operations in September 2014 prior to our obtaining control of the property.
Home Fashion
We conduct our Home Fashion segment through our wholly-owned subsidiary, WestPoint Home LLC (“WPH”). We acquired a controlling interest in WPH, previously known as WestPoint International, Inc., out of bankruptcy in 2005 and became sole owner of WPH in 2011. WPH's business consists of manufacturing, sourcing, marketing, distributing and selling home fashion consumer products.
Mining
We conduct our Mining segment through our majority owned subsidiary, Ferrous Resources Ltd ("Ferrous Resources"). We acquired a controlling interest in Ferrous Resources in 2015 through a cash tender offer for outstanding shares of Ferrous Resources common stock. As of December 31, 2018, we owned approximately 77.2% of the total outstanding common stock of Ferrous Resources. Ferrous Resources acquired certain rights to iron ore mineral resources in Brazil and develops mining operations and related infrastructure to produce and sell iron ore products to the global steel industry.
On December 5, 2018, we announced a definitive agreement to sell Ferrous Resources. The transaction is expected to close in 2019.
Railcar
We conducted our Railcar segment through our wholly-owned subsidiary, American Railcar Leasing, LLC ("ARL"). We acquired a controlling interest in ARL in 2010 from affiliates of Mr. Icahn in a common control transaction and acquired the remaining interests in ARL in 2016 from affiliates of Mr. Icahn. ARL operated a leasing business consisting of purchased railcars leased to third parties under operating leases.
On June 1, 2017 we sold ARL along with a majority of its railcar lease fleet. We sold the remaining railcars previously owned by ARL throughout the remainder of 2017 and the first nine months of 2018. As a result, as of December 31, 2018, our business no longer includes an active Railcar segment.
Discontinued Operations
In addition to certain dispositions described above, the following businesses were sold in 2018 and reclassified as discontinued operations.
Federal-Mogul LLC
Federal-Mogul LLC ("Federal-Mogul") is a diversified, global supplier of automotive products to a variety of end markets. Federal-Mogul was previously reported within our Automotive segment prior to its reclassification as discontinued operations in the second quarter of 2018. In January 2017, we increased our ownership in Federal-Mogul to 100%. In February 2017, Federal-Mogul was converted from a Delaware corporation to a Delaware limited liability company. Prior to this, Federal-Mogul was a majority owned subsidiary of ours with publicly traded common stock. In April 2018, we entered into an agreement to sell Federal-Mogul to Tenneco Inc. ("Tenneco"). On October 1, 2018, we closed on the sale of Federal-Mogul to Tenneco for cash and shares of Tenneco common stock, which includes a 9.9% voting interest in Tenneco in addition to a non-voting interest in Tenneco.
Tropicana Entertainment, Inc.
Tropicana Entertainment, Inc. ("Tropicana") is an owner and operator of regional casino and entertainment properties. Tropicana was previously reported within our former Gaming segment prior to its reclassification as discontinued operations in the second quarter of 2018. During August 2017, we increased our ownership in Tropicana from 72.5% to 83.9% through a tender offer for additional shares of Tropicana common stock not already owned by us. Tropicana was a majority owned subsidiary of ours with publicly traded common stock. In April 2018, we entered into an agreement to sell Tropicana's real

8


estate to Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. and to merge Tropicana's gaming and hotel operations into Eldorado Resorts, Inc. The transaction did not include Tropicana's Aruba assets. On October 1, 2018, we closed on the Tropicana transaction.
American Railcar Industries, Inc.
American Railcar Industries, Inc. ("ARI") is a prominent North American designer and manufacturer of hopper and tank railcars that provides its railcar customers with integrated solutions through a comprehensive set of high-quality products and related services through its railcar manufacturing, railcar leasing and railcar repair operations. ARI was previously reported within our Railcar segment prior to its reclassification as discontinued operations in the fourth quarter of 2018. ARI was a majority owned subsidiary of ours with publicly traded common stock. In October 2018, we entered into an agreement to sell ARI to ITE Rail Fund L.P. On December 5, 2018, we closed on the sale of ARI.
Holding Company
We seek to invest our available cash and cash equivalents in liquid investments with a view to enhancing returns as we continue to assess further acquisitions of, or investments in, operating businesses. As of December 31, 2018, we had investments with a fair market value of approximately $5.1 billion in the Investment Funds. In addition, as of December 31, 2018, our Holding Company had various other investments, primarily equity investments, with a fair market value of approximately $1.3 billion.
Employees
We have an aggregate of 34 employees at our Holding Company and Investment segment. Our other reporting segments employ an aggregate of approximately 29,000 employees, of which approximately 72% are employed within our Automotive segment and less than 10% at each of our other segments. Approximately 17% of our employees are employed internationally, primarily within our Food Packaging, Home Fashion and Mining segments.
Available Information
Icahn Enterprises maintains a website at www.ielp.com. We provide access to our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports free of charge through this website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with the SEC. Paper copies of annual and periodic reports filed with the SEC may be obtained free of charge upon written request by contacting our headquarters at the address located on the front cover of this report or under Investor Relations on our website. In addition, our corporate governance guidelines, including Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and Audit Committee Charter, are available on our website (under Corporate Governance) and are available in print without charge to any stockholder requesting them. You may obtain and copy any document we furnish or file with the SEC at the SEC's public reference room at 100 F Street, NE, Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the SEC's public reference facilities by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, information statements, and other information regarding issuers like us who file electronically with the SEC. The SEC's website is located at www.sec.gov.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.
We and our subsidiaries are subject to certain risks and uncertainties which are described below. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only risks that affect our businesses. Additional risks and uncertainties that are unknown or not deemed significant may also have a negative impact on our businesses.
Risks Relating to Our Structure
Our general partner, and its control person, has significant influence over us.
Mr. Icahn, through affiliates, owns 100% of Icahn Enterprises GP, the general partner of Icahn Enterprises and Icahn Enterprises Holdings, and approximately 91.7% of Icahn Enterprises' outstanding depositary units as of December 31, 2018, and, as a result, has the ability to influence many aspects of our operations and affairs.
Mr. Icahn’s estate has been designed to assure the stability and continuation of Icahn Enterprises with no need to monetize his interests for estate tax or other purposes. In the event of Mr. Icahn’s death, control of Mr. Icahn’s interests in Icahn Enterprises and its general partner will be placed in charitable and other trusts under the control of senior Icahn Enterprises' executives and Icahn family members. However, there can be no assurance that such planning will be effective.
We have engaged, and in the future may engage, in transactions with our affiliates.
We have invested and may in the future invest in entities in which Mr. Icahn also invests. We also have purchased and may in the future purchase entities or investments from him or his affiliates. Although Icahn Enterprises GP has never received fees in connection with our investments, our partnership agreement allows for the payment of these fees. Mr. Icahn may pursue

9


other business opportunities in industries in which we compete and there is no requirement that any additional business opportunities be presented to us. We continuously identify, evaluate and engage in discussions concerning potential investments and acquisitions, including potential investments in and acquisitions of affiliates of Mr. Icahn. There cannot be any assurance that any potential transactions that we consider will be completed.
We are subject to the risk of becoming an investment company.
Because we are a holding company and a significant portion of our assets may, from time to time, consist of investments in companies in which we own less than a 50% interest, we run the risk of inadvertently becoming an investment company that is required to register under the Investment Company Act. Events beyond our control, including significant appreciation or depreciation in the market value of certain of our publicly traded holdings or adverse developments with respect to our ownership of certain of our subsidiaries, could result in our inadvertently becoming an investment company that is required to register under the Investment Company Act. Our recent sales of Federal-Mogul, Tropicana and ARI did not result in our being considered an investment company. However, additional transactions involving the sale of certain assets could result in our being considered an investment company. Following such events or transactions, an exemption under the Investment Company Act would provide us up to one year to take steps to avoid becoming classified as an investment company. We expect to take steps to avoid becoming classified as an investment company, but no assurance can be made that we will successfully be able to take the steps necessary to avoid becoming classified as an investment company.
If we are unsuccessful, then we will be required to register as a registered investment company and will be subject to extensive, restrictive and potentially adverse regulations relating to, among other things, operating methods, management, capital structure, dividends and transactions with affiliates. Registered investment companies are not permitted to operate their business in the manner in which we currently operate our business, nor are registered investment companies permitted to have many of the relationships that we have with our affiliated companies. In addition, if we become required to register under the Investment Company Act, it is likely that we would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes and would be subject to the tax consequences described below under the caption, “We may become taxable as a corporation if we are no longer treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes."
If it were established that we were an investment company and did not register as an investment company when required to do so, there would be a risk, among other material adverse consequences, that we could become subject to monetary penalties or injunctive relief, or both, in an action brought by the SEC, that we would be unable to enforce contracts with third parties or that third parties could seek to obtain rescission of transactions with us undertaken during the period it was established that we were an unregistered investment company.
We may structure transactions in a less advantageous manner to avoid becoming subject to the Investment Company Act.
In order not to become an investment company required to register under the Investment Company Act, we monitor the value of our investments and structure transactions with an eye toward the Investment Company Act. As a result, we may structure transactions in a less advantageous manner than if we did not have Investment Company Act concerns, or we may avoid otherwise economically desirable transactions due to those concerns.
We may become taxable as a corporation if we are no longer treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.
We believe that we have been and are properly treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. This allows us to pass through our income and deductions to our partners. However, the Internal Revenue Service could challenge our partnership status and we could fail to qualify as a partnership for past years as well as future years. Qualification as a partnership involves the application of highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended. For example, a publicly traded partnership is generally taxable as a corporation unless 90% or more of its gross income is “qualifying” income, which includes interest, dividends, oil and gas revenues, real property rents, gains from the sale or other disposition of real property, gain from the sale or other disposition of capital assets held for the production of interest or dividends, and certain other items. We believe that in all prior years of our existence at least 90% of our gross income was “qualifying” income and we intend to structure our business in a manner such that at least 90% of our gross income will constitute “qualifying” income this year and in the future. However, there can be no assurance that such structuring will be effective in all events to avoid the receipt of more than 10% of non-qualifying income. If less than 90% of our gross income constitutes “qualifying” income, we may be subject to corporate tax on our net income plus possible state taxes. Further, if less than 90% of our gross income constituted “qualifying” income for past years, we may be subject to corporate level tax plus interest and possibly penalties. In addition, if we become required to register under the Investment Company Act, it is likely that we would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The cost of paying federal and possibly state income tax, either for past years or going forward could be a significant liability and would reduce our funds available to make distributions to holders of units, and to make interest and principal payments on our debt securities. To meet the “qualifying” income test, we may structure transactions in a manner which is less advantageous than if this were not a consideration, or we may avoid otherwise economically desirable transactions.

10


We may be negatively impacted by the potential for changes in tax laws.
Our investment strategy considers various tax related impacts. Past or future legislative proposals have been or may be introduced that, if enacted, could have a material and adverse effect on us. For example, past proposals have included taxing publicly traded partnerships, such as us, as corporations and introducing substantive changes to the definition of “qualifying” income, which could make it more difficult or impossible to for us to meet the exception that allows publicly traded partnerships generating “qualifying” income to be treated as partnerships (rather than corporations) for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We currently cannot predict the outcome of such legislative proposals, including, if enacted, their impact on our operations and financial position.
Holders of depositary units may be required to pay tax on their share of our income even if they did not receive cash distributions from us.
Because we are treated as a partnership for income tax purposes, holders of units are generally required to pay federal income tax, and, in some cases, state or local income tax, on the portion of our taxable income allocated to them, whether or not such income is distributed. Accordingly, it is possible that holders of depositary units may not receive cash distributions from us equal to their share of our taxable income, or even equal to their tax liability on the portion of our income allocated to them.
We may be subject to the pension liabilities of our affiliates.
Mr. Icahn, through certain affiliates, owns 100% of Icahn Enterprises GP and approximately 91.7% of Icahn Enterprises' outstanding depositary units as of December 31, 2018. Applicable pension and tax laws make each member of a “controlled group” of entities, generally defined as entities in which there is at least an 80% common ownership interest, jointly and severally liable for certain pension plan obligations of any member of the controlled group. These pension obligations include ongoing contributions to fund the plan, as well as liability for any unfunded liabilities that may exist at the time the plan is terminated. In addition, the failure to pay these pension obligations when due may result in the creation of liens in favor of the pension plan or the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (the "PBGC") against the assets of each member of the controlled group.
As a result of the more than 80% ownership interest in us by Mr. Icahn’s affiliates, we and our subsidiaries are subject to the pension liabilities of entities in which Mr. Icahn has a direct or indirect ownership interest of at least 80%, which includes the liabilities of pension plans sponsored by ACF Industries LLC ("ACF"). All the minimum funding requirements of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, for the ACF plans have been met as of December 31, 2018. If the plans were voluntarily terminated, they would be underfunded by approximately $80 million as of December 31, 2018. These results are based on the most recent information provided by the plans’ actuary. These liabilities could increase or decrease, depending on a number of factors, including future changes in benefits, investment returns, and the assumptions used to calculate the liability. As members of the controlled group, we would be liable for any failure of ACF to make ongoing pension contributions or to pay the unfunded liabilities upon a termination of the ACF pension plans. In addition, other entities now or in the future within the controlled group in which we are included may have pension plan obligations that are, or may become, underfunded and we would be liable for any failure of such entities to make ongoing pension contributions or to pay the unfunded liabilities upon termination of such plans.
The current underfunded status of the ACF pension plans requires them to notify the PBGC of certain “reportable events,” such as if we cease to be a member of the ACF controlled group, or if we make certain extraordinary dividends or stock redemptions. The obligation to report could cause us to seek to delay or reconsider the occurrence of such reportable events.
Starfire Holding Corporation ("Starfire"), which is 99.6% owned by Mr. Icahn, has undertaken to indemnify us and our subsidiaries from losses resulting from any imposition of certain pension funding or termination liabilities that may be imposed on us and our subsidiaries or our assets as a result of being a member of the Icahn controlled group, including ACF. The Starfire indemnity provides, among other things, that so long as such contingent liabilities exist and could be imposed on us, Starfire will not make any distributions to its stockholders that would reduce its net worth to below $250 million. Nonetheless, Starfire may not be able to fund its indemnification obligations to us.
We are a limited partnership and a ‘‘controlled company’’ within the meaning of the NASDAQ rules and as such are exempt from certain corporate governance requirements.
We are a limited partnership and ‘‘controlled company’’ pursuant to Rule 5615(c) of the NASDAQ listing rules. As such we have elected, and intend to continue to elect, not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements of the NASDAQ listing rules, including the requirements that a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors and that independent directors determine the compensation of executive officers and the selection of nominees to the board of directors. We do not maintain a compensation or nominating committee and do not have a majority of independent directors. Accordingly, while we remain a controlled company and during any transition period following a time when we are no longer a controlled company, the NASDAQ listing rules do not provide the same corporate governance protections applicable to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the NASDAQ listing requirements.

11


Certain members of our management team may be involved in other business activities that may involve conflicts of interest.
Certain individual members of our management team may, from time to time, be involved in the management of other businesses, including those owned or controlled by Mr. Icahn and his affiliates. Accordingly, these individuals may focus a portion of their time and attention on managing these other businesses. Conflicts may arise in the future between our interests and the interests of the other entities and business activities in which such individuals are involved.
Holders of Icahn Enterprises' depositary units have limited voting rights, including rights to participate in our management.
Our general partner manages and operates Icahn Enterprises. Unlike the holders of common stock in a corporation, holders of Icahn Enterprises' outstanding depositary units have only limited voting rights on matters affecting our business. Holders of depositary units have no right to elect the general partner on an annual or other continuing basis, and our general partner generally may not be removed except pursuant to the vote of the holders of not less than 75% of the outstanding depositary units. In addition, removal of the general partner may result in a default under the indentures governing our senior notes. As a result, holders of our depositary units have limited say in matters affecting our operations and others may find it difficult to attempt to gain control or influence our activities.
Holders of Icahn Enterprises' depositary units may not have limited liability in certain circumstances and may be personally liable for the return of distributions that cause our liabilities to exceed our assets.
We conduct our businesses through Icahn Enterprises Holdings in several states. Maintenance of limited liability will require compliance with legal requirements of those states. We are the sole limited partner of Icahn Enterprises Holdings. Limitations on the liability of a limited partner for the obligations of a limited partnership have not clearly been established in several states. If it were determined that Icahn Enterprises Holdings has been conducting business in any state without compliance with the applicable limited partnership statute or the possession or exercise of the right by the partnership, as limited partner of Icahn Enterprises Holdings, to remove its general partner, to approve certain amendments to the Icahn Enterprises Holdings partnership agreement or to take other action pursuant to the Icahn Enterprises Holdings partnership agreement, constituted “control” of Icahn Enterprises Holdings' business for the purposes of the statutes of any relevant state, Icahn Enterprises and/or its unitholders, under certain circumstances, might be held personally liable for Icahn Enterprises Holdings' obligations to the same extent as our general partner. Further, under the laws of certain states, Icahn Enterprises might be liable for the amount of distributions made to Icahn Enterprises by Icahn Enterprises Holdings.
Holders of Icahn Enterprises' depositary units may also be required to repay Icahn Enterprises amounts wrongfully distributed to them. Under Delaware law, we may not make a distribution to holders of our depositary units if the distribution causes our liabilities to exceed the fair value of our assets. Liabilities to partners on account of their partnership interests and nonrecourse liabilities are not counted for purposes of determining whether a distribution is permitted. Delaware law provides that a limited partner who receives such a distribution and knew at the time of the distribution that the distribution violated Delaware law will be liable to the limited partnership for the distribution amount for three years from the distribution date.
Additionally, under Delaware law an assignee who becomes a substituted limited partner of a limited partnership is liable for the obligations, if any, of the assignor to make contributions to the partnership. However, such an assignee is not obligated for liabilities unknown to him or her at the time he or she became a limited partner if the liabilities could not be determined from the partnership agreement.
Since we are a limited partnership, you may not be able to pursue legal claims against us in U.S. federal courts.
We are a limited partnership organized under the laws of the state of Delaware. Under the federal rules of civil procedure, you may not be able to sue us in federal court on claims other than those based solely on federal law, because of lack of complete diversity. Case law applying diversity jurisdiction deems us to have the citizenship of each of our limited partners. Because we are a publicly traded limited partnership, it may not be possible for you to sue us in a federal court because we have citizenship in all 50 U.S. states and operations in many states. Accordingly, you will be limited to bringing any claims in state court.

Risks Relating to Liquidity and Capital Requirements
We are a holding company and depend on the businesses of our subsidiaries to satisfy our obligations.
We are a holding company. In addition to cash and cash equivalents, U.S. government and agency obligations, marketable equity and debt securities and other short-term investments, our assets consist primarily of investments in our subsidiaries. Moreover, if we make significant investments in new operating businesses, it is likely that we will reduce our liquid assets and those of Icahn Enterprises Holdings in order to fund those investments and the ongoing operations of our subsidiaries. Consequently, our cash flow and our ability to meet our debt service obligations and make distributions with respect to

12


depositary units likely will depend on the cash flow of our subsidiaries and the payment of funds to us by our subsidiaries in the form of dividends, distributions, loans or otherwise.
The operating results of our subsidiaries may not be sufficient to make distributions to us. In addition, our subsidiaries are not obligated to make funds available to us and distributions and intercompany transfers from our subsidiaries to us may be restricted by applicable law or covenants contained in debt agreements and other agreements to which these subsidiaries may be subject or enter into in the future. 
The terms of certain borrowing agreements of our subsidiaries, or other entities in which we own equity, may restrict dividends, distributions or loans to us. To the degree any distributions and transfers are impaired or prohibited, our ability to make payments on our debt and to make distributions on our depositary units will be limited.
To service our indebtedness, we will require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to maintain our current cash position or generate cash depends on many factors beyond our control.
Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, and to fund operations will depend on existing cash balances and our ability to generate cash in the future. This, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. Our current businesses and businesses that we acquire may not generate sufficient cash to service our outstanding indebtedness. In addition, we may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations or investments and future borrowings may not be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to service our outstanding indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs. We may need to refinance all or a portion of our outstanding indebtedness on or before maturity. We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance any of our outstanding indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
Our failure to comply with the covenants contained under any of our debt instruments, including the Indentures (including our failure to comply as a result of events beyond our control), could result in an event of default that would materially and adversely affect our financial condition.
Our failure to comply with the covenants under any of our debt instruments (including our failure to comply as a result of events beyond our control) may trigger a default or event of default under such instruments. If there were an event of default under one of our debt instruments, the holders of the defaulted debt could cause all amounts outstanding with respect to that debt to be due and payable immediately. In addition, any event of default or declaration of acceleration under one debt instrument could result in an event of default and declaration of acceleration under one or more of our other debt instruments, including the exchange notes. It is possible that, if the defaulted debt is accelerated, our assets and cash flow may not be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under our outstanding debt instruments and we cannot assure you that we would be able to refinance or restructure the payments on those debt securities.
We may not have sufficient funds necessary to finance a change of control offer that may be required by the indentures governing our senior notes.
If Mr. Icahn were to sell, or otherwise transfer, some or all of his interests in us to an unrelated party or group, a change of control could be deemed to have occurred under the terms of the indentures governing our senior notes, which would require us to offer to repurchase all outstanding senior notes at 101% of their principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest and liquidated damages, if any, to the date of repurchase. However, it is possible that we will not have sufficient funds at the time of the change of control to make the required repurchase of notes.
We have made significant investments in the Investment Funds and negative performance of the Investment Funds may result in a significant decline in the value of our investments.
As of December 31, 2018, we had investments in the Investment Funds with a fair market value of approximately $5.1 billion, which may be accessed on short notice to satisfy our liquidity needs. However, if the Investment Funds experience negative performance, the value of these investments will be negatively impacted, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, cash flows and financial position.
Future cash distributions to Icahn Enterprises' unitholders, if any, can be affected by numerous factors.
While we made cash distributions to Icahn Enterprises' unitholders in each of the four quarters of 2018, the payment of future distributions will be determined by the board of directors of Icahn Enterprises GP, our general partner, quarterly, based on a review of a number of factors, including those described below and other factors that it deems relevant at the time that declaration of a distribution is considered.
Our ability to pay distributions will depend on numerous factors, including the availability of adequate cash flow from operations; the proceeds, if any, from divestitures; our capital requirements and other obligations; restrictions contained in our financing arrangements, including the indentures governing our senior notes; and our issuances of additional equity and debt securities. The availability of cash flow in the future depends as well upon events and circumstances outside our control,

13


including prevailing economic and industry conditions and financial, business and similar factors. No assurance can be given that we will be able to make distributions or as to the timing of any distribution. Even if distributions are made, there can be no assurance that holders of depositary units will not be required to recognize taxable income in excess of cash distributions made in respect of the period in which a distribution is made.

Risks Relating to All of Our Businesses
General
All of our businesses are subject to the effects of the following:
the threat of terrorism or war;
loss of any of our or our subsidiaries' key personnel;
the unavailability, as needed, of additional financing;
significant competition, varying by industry and geographic markets;
the unavailability of insurance at acceptable rates; and
litigation not in the ordinary course of business (see Item 3, "Legal Proceedings," of this Report).
We need qualified personnel to manage and operate our various businesses.
In our decentralized business model, we need qualified and competent management to direct day-to-day business activities of our operating subsidiaries. Our operating subsidiaries also need qualified and competent personnel in executing their business plans and serving their customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. Changes in demographics, training requirements and the unavailability of qualified personnel could negatively impact one or more of our significant operating subsidiaries ability to meet demands of customers to supply goods and services. Recruiting and retaining qualified personnel is important to all of our operations. Although we have adequate personnel for the current business environment, unpredictable increases in demand for goods and services may exacerbate the risk of not having sufficient numbers of trained personnel, which could have a negative impact on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Global economic conditions may have adverse impacts on our businesses and financial condition.
Changes in economic conditions could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. A number of economic factors, including, but not limited to, consumer interest rates, consumer confidence and debt levels, retail trends, housing starts, sales of existing homes, the level and availability of mortgage refinancing, and commodity prices, may generally adversely affect our businesses, financial condition and results of operations. Recessionary economic cycles, higher and protracted unemployment rates, increased fuel and other energy and commodity costs, rising costs of transportation and increased tax rates can have a material adverse impact on our businesses, and may adversely affect demand for sales of our businesses' products, or the costs of materials and services utilized in their operations. These factors could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, income from operations and our cash flows.
We and our subsidiaries are subject to cybersecurity and other technological risks that could disrupt our information technology systems and adversely affect our financial performance.
Threats to information technology systems associated with cybersecurity and other technological risks and cyber incidents or attacks continue to grow. We and our subsidiaries depend on the accuracy, capacity and security of our information technology systems and those used by our third-party service providers. In addition, we and our subsidiaries collect, process and retain sensitive and confidential information in the normal course of business, including information about our employees, customers and other third parties. Despite the security measures we have in place and any additional measures we may implement in the future, our facilities, systems, and networks, and those of our third-party service providers, could be vulnerable to security breaches, computer viruses, lost or misplaced data, programming errors, human errors, employee misconduct, malicious attacks, acts of vandalism or other events. In addition, hardware, software or applications we develop or obtain from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could result in security breaches or disruptions. These events or any other disruption or compromise of our or our third-party service providers’ information technology systems could negatively impact our business operations or result in the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of sensitive and confidential information. Such events could damage our reputation, expose us to the risks of litigation and liability, disrupt our business or otherwise affect our results of operations, any of which could adversely affect our financial performance.
Software implementation and upgrades at certain of our subsidiaries may result in complications that adversely impact the timeliness, accuracy and reliability of internal and external reporting.
Our operating subsidiaries are operated and managed on a decentralized basis and their software is not integrated with each other or with us. Certain of our subsidiaries are currently undergoing, or in the future may undergo, software implementation and/or upgrades. Software implementation and upgrades are complex, time consuming and require significant

14


resources. Failure to properly implement or upgrade software, including failure to recruit/retain appropriate experts, train employees, implement processes and properly bridge to legacy software, among others, may negatively impact our subsidiaries' ability to properly operate their businesses and to report internally and externally, including reporting to us. As a result, we may not adequately assess the performance of our subsidiaries, properly allocate resources report timely and accurate financial results.
We or our subsidiaries may pursue acquisitions or other affiliations that involve inherent risks, any of which may cause us not to realize anticipated benefits, and we may have difficulty integrating the operations of any companies that may be acquired, which may adversely affect its operations.
We may expand our existing businesses if appropriate opportunities are identified, as well as use our established businesses as a platform for additional acquisitions in the same or related areas. We and our operating subsidiaries have at times grown through acquisitions and may make additional acquisitions in the future as part of our business strategy. The full benefits of these acquisitions, however, require integration of manufacturing, administrative, financial, sales, and marketing approaches and personnel. We may invest significant resources towards realizing benefits. If we or our operating subsidiaries are unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses, we may not realize the benefits of the acquisitions, our financial results may be negatively affected, and additional cash may be required to integrate such operations. Additionally, any such acquisition, if consummated, could involve risks not presently faced by us.
If we discover material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting or at any recently acquired entity, it may adversely affect our ability to provide timely and reliable financial information and satisfy our reporting obligations under federal securities laws, which also could affect the market price of our depositary units or our ability to remain listed on NASDAQ.
Effective internal and disclosure controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and to operate successfully as a public company. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our reputation and operating results would be harmed. A “material weakness” is a significant deficiency or combination of significant deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting that results in a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected and corrected on a timely basis. A “significant deficiency” is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting that is less severe than a material weakness, yet important enough to merit attention of those responsible for oversight of our financial reporting.
To the extent that any material weakness or significant deficiency exists in our consolidated subsidiaries' internal control over financial reporting, such material weakness or significant deficiency may adversely affect our ability to provide timely and reliable financial information necessary for the conduct of our business and satisfaction of our reporting obligations under federal securities laws, that could affect our ability to remain listed on NASDAQ. Ineffective internal and disclosure controls could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our depositary units or the rating of our debt.
 

Risks Relating to Our Investment Segment
Our investments may be subject to significant uncertainties.
Our investments may not be successful for many reasons, including, but not limited to:
fluctuations of interest rates;
lack of control in minority investments;
worsening of general economic and market conditions;
lack of diversification;
lack of success of the Investment Funds' activist strategies;
fluctuations of U.S. dollar exchange rates; and
adverse legal and regulatory developments that may affect particular businesses.
The historical financial information for the Investment Funds is not necessarily indicative of its future performance.
Our Investment segment's financial information is driven by the amount of funds allocated to the Investment Funds and the performance of the underlying investments in the Investment Funds. Future funds allocated to the Investment Funds may increase or decrease based on the contributions and redemptions by our Holding Company and by Mr. Icahn and his affiliates. Additionally, historical performance results of the Investment Funds are not indicative of future results as past market conditions, investment opportunities and investment decisions may not occur in the future. Changes in general market conditions coupled with changes in exposure to short and long positions have significant impact on our Investment segment's

15


results of operations and the comparability of results of operations year over year and as such, future results of operations will be impacted by our future exposures and future market conditions, which may not be consistent with prior trends. Additionally, future returns may be affected by additional risks, including risks of the industries and businesses in which a particular fund invests.
We may not be able to identify suitable investments, and our investments may not result in favorable returns or may result in losses.
Our partnership agreement allows us to take advantage of investment opportunities we believe exist outside of our operating businesses. The equity securities in which we may invest may include common stock, preferred stock and securities convertible into common stock, as well as warrants to purchase these securities. The debt securities in which we may invest may include bonds, debentures, notes or non-rated mortgage-related securities, municipal obligations, bank debt and mezzanine loans. Certain of these securities may include lower rated or non-rated securities, which may provide the potential for higher yields and therefore may entail higher risk and may include the securities of bankrupt or distressed companies. In addition, we may engage in various investment techniques, including derivatives, options and futures transactions, foreign currency transactions, “short” sales and leveraging for either hedging or other purposes. We may concentrate our activities by owning significant or controlling interests in certain investments. We may not be successful in finding suitable opportunities to invest our cash and our strategy of investing in undervalued assets may expose us to numerous risks.
Successful execution of our activist investment activities involves many risks, certain of which are outside of our control.
The success of our investment strategy may require, among other things: (i) that we properly identify companies whose securities prices can be improved through corporate and/or strategic action or successful restructuring of their operations; (ii) that we acquire sufficient securities of such companies at a sufficiently attractive price; (iii) that we avoid triggering anti-takeover and regulatory obstacles while aggregating our positions; (iv) that management of portfolio companies and other security holders respond positively to our proposals; and (v) that the market price of portfolio companies' securities increases in response to any actions taken by the portfolio companies. We cannot assure you that any of the foregoing will succeed.
The success of the Investment Funds depends upon the ability of our Investment segment to successfully develop and implement investment strategies that achieve the Investment Funds' objectives. Subjective decisions made by employees of our Investment segment may cause the Investment Funds to incur losses or to miss profit opportunities on which the Investment Funds would otherwise have capitalized. In addition, in the event that Mr. Icahn ceases to participate in the management of the Investment Funds, the consequences to the Investment Funds and our interest in them could be material and adverse and could lead to the premature termination of the Investment Funds.
The Investment Funds make investments in companies we do not control.
Investments by the Investment Funds include investments in debt or equity securities of publicly traded companies that we do not control. Such investments may be acquired by the Investment Funds through open market trading activities or through purchases of securities from the issuer. These investments will be subject to the risk that the company in which the investment is made may make business, financial or management decisions with which our Investment segment disagree or that the majority of stakeholders or the management of the company may take risks or otherwise act in a manner that does not serve the best interests of the Investment Funds. In addition, the Investment Funds may make investments in which it shares control over the investment with co-investors, which may make it more difficult for it to implement its investment approach or exit the investment when it otherwise would. If any of the foregoing were to occur, the values of the investments by the Investment Funds could decrease and our Investment segment revenues could suffer as a result.
The Investment Funds' investment strategy involves numerous and significant risks, including the risk that we may lose some or all of our investments in the Investment Funds. This risk may be magnified due to concentration of investments and investments in undervalued securities.
Our Investment segment's revenue depends on the investments made by the Investment Funds. There are numerous and significant risks associated with these investments, certain of which are described in this risk factor and in other risk factors set forth herein.
Certain investment positions held by the Investment Funds may be illiquid. The Investment Funds may own restricted or non-publicly traded securities and securities traded on foreign exchanges. We also have significant influence with respect to certain companies owned by the Investment Funds, including representation on the board of directors of certain companies, and may be subject to trading restrictions with respect to specific positions in the Investment Funds at any particular time. These investments and trading restrictions could prevent the Investment Funds from liquidating unfavorable positions promptly and subject the Investment Funds to substantial losses.
At any given time, the Investment Funds' assets may become highly concentrated within a particular company, industry, asset category, trading style or financial or economic market. In that event, the Investment Funds' investment portfolio will be

16


more susceptible to fluctuations in value resulting from adverse events, developments or economic conditions affecting the performance of that particular company, industry, asset category, trading style or economic market than a less concentrated portfolio would be. As a result, the Investment Funds' investment portfolio's aggregate returns may be volatile and may be affected substantially by the performance of only one or a few holdings.
As of December 31, 2018, our top five holdings in the Investment Funds had a market value of approximately $4.3 billion, which represented approximately 43% of our assets under management for the Investment Segment. Our largest holding at December 31, 2018 was Herbalife Ltd. (“Herbalife”), which had a market value of approximately $1.7 billion, and represented approximately 16% of our assets under management for the Investment Segment. Therefore, a significant decline in the fair market values of our larger positions may have a material adverse impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows and the trading price of our depositary units. For example, Herbalife previously disclosed in its public filings that the SEC and the Department of Justice have been conducting an investigation into Herbalife’s compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act in China, which is mainly focused on Herbalife’s China external affairs expenditures relating to its China business activities and the adequacy of and compliance with Herbalife’s internal controls relating to such expenditures, and while it cannot predict the eventual scope, duration, or outcome of the government investigation at this time, including potential monetary payments, injunctions, or other relief, the results of this investigation could have a materially adverse impact on Herbalife’s financial condition, results of operations, and operations and the trading price of its common shares, which could, in turn, have a material adverse impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows and the trading price of our depositary units. Certain of the companies in our Investment Funds file annual, quarterly and current reports with the SEC, which are publicly available, and contain additional risk factors with respect to such companies.
The Investment Funds seek to invest in securities that are undervalued. The identification of investment opportunities in undervalued securities is challenging, and there are no assurances that such opportunities will be successfully recognized or acquired. While investments in undervalued securities offer the opportunity for above-average capital appreciation, these investments involve a high degree of financial risk and can result in substantial losses. Returns generated from the Investment Funds' investments may not adequately compensate for the business and financial risks assumed.
From time to time, the Investment Funds may invest in bonds or other fixed income securities, such as commercial paper and higher yielding (and, therefore, higher risk) debt securities. It is likely that a major economic recession could severely disrupt the market for such securities and may have a material adverse impact on the value of such securities. In addition, it is likely that any such economic downturn could adversely affect the ability of the issuers of such securities to repay principal and pay interest thereon and increase the incidence of default for such securities.
For reasons not necessarily attributable to any of the risks set forth in this Report (e.g., supply/demand imbalances or other market forces), the prices of the securities in which the Investment Funds invest may decline substantially. In particular, purchasing assets at what may appear to be undervalued levels is no guarantee that these assets will not be trading at even more undervalued levels at a future time of valuation or at the time of sale.
The prices of financial instruments in which the Investment Funds may invest can be highly volatile. Price movements of forward and other derivative contracts in which the Investment Funds' assets may be invested are influenced by, among other things, interest rates, changing supply and demand relationships, trade, fiscal, monetary and exchange control programs and policies of governments, and national and international political and economic events and policies. The Investment Funds are subject to the risk of failure of any of the exchanges on which their positions trade or of their clearinghouses.
The use of leverage in investments by the Investment Funds may pose a significant degree of risk and may enhance the possibility of significant loss in the value of the investments in the Investment Funds.
The Investment Funds may leverage their capital if their general partners believe that the use of leverage may enable the Investment Funds to achieve a higher rate of return. Accordingly, the Investment Funds may pledge its securities in order to borrow additional funds for investment purposes. The Investment Funds may also leverage its investment return with options, short sales, swaps, forwards and other derivative instruments. The amount of borrowings that the Investment Funds may have outstanding at any time may be substantial in relation to their capital. While leverage may present opportunities for increasing the Investment Funds' total return, leverage may increase losses as well. Accordingly, any event that adversely affects the value of an investment by the Investment Funds would be magnified to the extent such fund is leveraged. The cumulative effect of the use of leverage by the Investment Funds in a market that moves adversely to the Investment Funds' investments could result in a substantial loss to the Investment Funds that would be greater than if the Investment Funds were not leveraged. There is no assurance that leverage will be available on acceptable terms, if at all.
In general, the use of short-term margin borrowings results in certain additional risks to the Investment Funds. For example, should the securities pledged to brokers to secure any Investment Fund's margin accounts decline in value, the Investment Funds could be subject to a “margin call,” pursuant to which it must either deposit additional funds or securities with the broker, or suffer mandatory liquidation of the pledged securities to compensate for the decline in value. In the event of

17


a sudden drop in the value of any of the Investment Funds' assets, the Investment Funds might not be able to liquidate assets quickly enough to satisfy its margin requirements.
The Investment Funds may enter into repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements. When the Investment Funds enters into a repurchase agreement, it “sells” securities issued by the U.S. or a non-U.S. government, or agencies thereof, to a broker-dealer or financial institution, and agrees to repurchase such securities for the price paid by the broker-dealer or financial institution, plus interest at a negotiated rate. In a reverse repurchase transaction, the Investment Fund “buys” securities issued by the U.S. or a non-U.S. government, or agencies thereof, from a broker-dealer or financial institution, subject to the obligation of the broker-dealer or financial institution to repurchase such securities at the price paid by the Investment Funds, plus interest at a negotiated rate. The use of repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements by any of the Investment Funds involves certain risks. For example, if the seller of securities to the Investment Funds under a reverse repurchase agreement defaults on its obligation to repurchase the underlying securities, as a result of its bankruptcy or otherwise, the Investment Funds will seek to dispose of such securities, which action could involve costs or delays. If the seller becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under applicable bankruptcy or other laws, the Investment Funds' ability to dispose of the underlying securities may be restricted. Finally, if a seller defaults on its obligation to repurchase securities under a reverse repurchase agreement, the Investment Funds may suffer a loss to the extent it is forced to liquidate its position in the market, and proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities are less than the repurchase price agreed to by the defaulting seller.
The financing used by the Investment Funds to leverage its portfolio will be extended by securities brokers and dealers in the marketplace in which the Investment Funds invest. While the Investment Funds will attempt to negotiate the terms of these financing arrangements with such brokers and dealers, its ability to do so will be limited. The Investment Funds are therefore subject to changes in the value that the broker-dealer ascribes to a given security or position, the amount of margin required to support such security or position, the borrowing rate to finance such security or position and/or such broker-dealer's willingness to continue to provide any such credit to the Investment Funds. Because the Investment Funds currently have no alternative credit facility which could be used to finance its portfolio in the absence of financing from broker-dealers, it could be forced to liquidate its portfolio on short notice to meet its financing obligations. The forced liquidation of all or a portion of the Investment Funds' portfolios at distressed prices could result in significant losses to the Investment Funds.
The possibility of increased regulation could result in additional burdens on our Investment segment.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Reform Act"), enacted into law in July 2010, resulted in regulations affecting almost every part of the financial services industry.
The regulatory environment in which our Investment segment operates is subject to further regulation in addition to the rules already promulgated, including the Reform Act. Our Investment segment may be adversely affected by the enactment of new or revised regulations, or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of rules and regulations imposed by the SEC, other U.S. or foreign governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations that supervise the financial markets. Such changes may limit the scope of investment activities that may be undertaken by the Investment Funds' managers. Any such changes could increase the cost of our Investment segment doing business and/or materially adversely impact its profitability. Additionally, the securities and futures markets are subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations and margin requirements. The SEC, other regulators and self-regulatory organizations and exchanges have taken and are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of market emergencies. The regulation of derivatives transactions and funds that engage in such transactions is an evolving area of law and is subject to modification by government and judicial action. The effect of any future regulatory change on the Investment Funds and the Investment segment could be substantial and adverse.
The ability to hedge investments successfully is subject to numerous risks.
The Investment Funds may utilize financial instruments, both for investment purposes and for risk management purposes in order to (i) protect against possible changes in the market value of the Investment Funds' investment portfolios resulting from fluctuations in the securities markets and changes in interest rates; (ii) protect the Investment Funds' unrealized gains in the value of its investment portfolios; (iii) facilitate the sale of any such investments; (iv) enhance or preserve returns, spreads or gains on any investment in the Investment Funds' portfolio; (v) hedge the interest rate or currency exchange rate on any of the Investment Funds' liabilities or assets; (vi) protect against any increase in the price of any securities our Investment segment anticipate purchasing at a later date; or (vii) for any other reason that our Investment segment deems appropriate.
The success of any hedging activities will depend, in part, upon the degree of correlation between the performance of the instruments used in the hedging strategy and the performance of the portfolio investments being hedged. However, hedging techniques may not always be possible or effective in limiting potential risks of loss. Since the characteristics of many securities change as markets change or time passes, the success of our Investment segment's hedging strategy will also be subject to the ability of our Investment segment to continually recalculate, readjust and execute hedges in an efficient and timely manner. While the Investment Funds may enter into hedging transactions to seek to reduce risk, such transactions may result in a poorer overall performance for the Investment Funds than if it had not engaged in such hedging transactions. For a variety of reasons, the Investment Funds may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between the hedging instruments

18


utilized and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Such an imperfect correlation may prevent the Investment Funds from achieving the intended hedge or expose the Investment Funds to risk of loss. The Investment Funds do not intend to seek to hedge every position and may determine not to hedge against a particular risk for various reasons, including, but not limited to, because they do not regard the probability of the risk occurring to be sufficiently high as to justify the cost of the hedge. Our Investment segment may not foresee the occurrence of the risk and therefore may not hedge against all risks.
The Investment Funds invest in distressed securities, as well as bank loans, asset backed securities and mortgage backed securities.
The Investment Funds may invest in securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers in weak financial condition, experiencing poor operating results, having substantial capital needs or negative net worth, facing special competitive or product obsolescence problems, or that are involved in bankruptcy or reorganization proceedings. Investments of this type may involve substantial financial, legal and business risks that can result in substantial, or at times even total, losses. The market prices of such securities are subject to abrupt and erratic market movements and above-average price volatility. It may take a number of years for the market price of such securities to reflect their intrinsic value. In liquidation (both in and out of bankruptcy) and other forms of corporate insolvency and reorganization, there exists the risk that the reorganization either will be unsuccessful (due to, for example, failure to obtain requisite approvals), will be delayed (for example, until various liabilities, actual or contingent, have been satisfied) or will result in a distribution of cash, assets or a new security the value of which will be less than the purchase price to the Investment Funds of the security in respect to which such distribution was made and the terms of which may render such security illiquid.
The Investment Funds may invest in companies that are based outside of the United States, which may expose the Investment Funds to additional risks not typically associated with investing in companies that are based in the United States.
Investments in securities of non-U.S. issuers (including non-U.S. governments) and securities denominated or whose prices are quoted in non-U.S. currencies pose, to the extent not successfully hedged, currency exchange risks (including blockage, devaluation and non-exchangeability), as well as a range of other potential risks, which could include expropriation, confiscatory taxation, imposition of withholding or other taxes on dividends, interest, capital gains or other income, political or social instability, illiquidity, price volatility and market manipulation. In addition, less information may be available regarding securities of non-U.S. issuers, and non-U.S. issuers may not be subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and requirements comparable to, or as uniform as, those of U.S. issuers. Transaction costs of investing in non-U.S. securities markets are generally higher than in the United States. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of exchanges, brokers and issuers than there is in the United States. The Investment Funds may have greater difficulty taking appropriate legal action in non-U.S. courts. Non-U.S. markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures which in some markets have at times failed to keep pace with the volume of transactions, thereby creating substantial delays and settlement failures that could adversely affect the Investment Funds' performance. Investments in non-U.S. markets may result in imposition of non-U.S. taxes or withholding on income and gains recognized with respect to such securities. There can be no assurance that adverse developments with respect to such risks will not materially adversely affect the Investment Funds' investments that are held in certain countries or the returns from these investments.
The Investment Funds' investments are subject to numerous additional risks including those described below.

Generally, there are few limitations set forth in the governing documents of the Investment Funds on the execution of their investment activities, which are subject to the sole discretion of our Investment segment.
The Investment Funds may buy or sell (or write) both call options and put options, and when it writes options, it may do so on a covered or an uncovered basis. When the Investment Funds sell (or write) an option, the risk can be substantially greater than when it buys an option. The seller of an uncovered call option bears the risk of an increase in the market price of the underlying security above the exercise price. The risk is theoretically unlimited unless the option is covered. If it is covered, the Investment Funds would forego the opportunity for profit on the underlying security should the market price of the security rise above the exercise price. Swaps and certain options and other custom instruments are subject to the risk of non-performance by the swap counterparty, including risks relating to the creditworthiness of the swap counterparty, market risk, liquidity risk and operations risk.
The Investment Funds may engage in short-selling, which is subject to a theoretically unlimited risk of loss because there is no limit on how much the price of a security may appreciate before the short position is closed out. The Investment Funds may be subject to losses if a security lender demands return of the borrowed securities and an alternative lending source cannot be found or if the Investment Funds are otherwise unable to borrow securities that are necessary to hedge its positions. There can be no assurance that the Investment Funds will be able to maintain the ability to borrow securities sold short. There also can be no assurance that the securities necessary to cover a short position will be available for purchase at or near prices quoted in the market.
The ability of the Investment Funds to execute a short selling strategy may be materially adversely impacted by temporary and/or new permanent rules, interpretations, prohibitions and restrictions adopted in response to adverse

19


market events. Regulatory authorities may from time-to-time impose restrictions that adversely affect the Investment Funds' ability to borrow certain securities in connection with short sale transactions. In addition, traditional lenders of securities might be less likely to lend securities under certain market conditions. As a result, the Investment Funds may not be able to effectively pursue a short selling strategy due to a limited supply of securities available for borrowing.
The Investment Funds may effect transactions through over-the-counter or inter-dealer markets. The participants in such markets are typically not subject to credit evaluation and regulatory oversight as are members of exchange-based markets. This exposes the Investment Funds to the risk that a counterparty will not settle a transaction in accordance with its terms and conditions because of a dispute over the terms of the contract (whether or not bona fide) or because of a credit or liquidity problem, thus causing the Investment Fund to suffer a loss. Such “counterparty risk” is accentuated for contracts with longer maturities where events may intervene to prevent settlement, or where the Investment Funds have concentrated its transactions with a single or small group of its counterparties. The Investment Funds are not restricted from dealing with any particular counterparty or from concentrating any or all of the Investment Funds' transactions with one counterparty.
Credit risk may arise through a default by one of several large institutions that are dependent on one another to meet their liquidity or operational needs, so that a default by one institution causes a series of defaults by other institutions. This systemic risk may materially adversely affect the financial intermediaries (such as prime brokers, clearing agencies, clearing houses, banks, securities firms and exchanges) with which the Investment Funds interact on a daily basis.
The efficacy of investment and trading strategies depends largely on the ability to establish and maintain an overall market position in a combination of financial instruments. The Investment Funds' trading orders may not be executed in a timely and efficient manner due to various circumstances, including systems failures or human error. In such event, the Investment Funds might only be able to acquire some but not all of the components of the position, or if the overall positions were to need adjustment, the Investment Funds might not be able to make such adjustment. As a result, the Investment Funds may not be able to achieve the market position selected by our Investment segment and might incur a loss in liquidating their position.
The Investment Funds assets may be held in one or more accounts maintained for the Investment Fund by its prime brokers or at other brokers or custodian banks, which may be located in various jurisdictions. The prime broker, other brokers (including those acting as sub-custodians) and custodian banks are subject to various laws and regulations in the relevant jurisdictions in the event of their insolvency. Accordingly, the practical effect of these laws and their application to the Investment Funds' assets may be subject to substantial variations, limitations and uncertainties. The insolvency of any of the prime brokers, local brokers, custodian banks or clearing corporations may result in the loss of all or a substantial portion of the Investment Funds' assets or in a significant delay in the Investment Funds having access to those assets.
The Investment Funds may invest in synthetic instruments with various counterparties. In the event of the insolvency of any counterparty, the Investment Funds' recourse will be limited to the collateral, if any, posted by the counterparty and, in the absence of collateral, the Investment Funds will be treated as a general creditor of the counterparty. While the Investment Funds expect that returns on a synthetic financial instrument may reflect those of each related reference security, as a result of the terms of the synthetic financial instrument and the assumption of the credit risk of the counterparty, a synthetic financial instrument may have a different expected return. The Investment Funds may also invest in credit default swaps.


Risks Relating to our Consolidated Operating Subsidiaries
Changes in regulations and regulatory actions can adversely affect our operating results and our ability to allocate capital.
In recent years, regulatory authorities have increased their regulation and scrutiny of businesses partially in response to financial markets crises, global economic recessions, and social and environmental issues. These initiatives may impact our operating subsidiaries, particularly those within our Energy and Mining segments. Changes in regulation and regulatory actions may increase our compliance costs and may require changes to how our operating subsidiaries conduct their businesses. Any regulatory changes could have a significant negative impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Our operating subsidiaries operate businesses which are subject to the risk of operational disruptions, damage to property, injury to persons or environmental and legal liability. Our operating subsidiaries could incur potentially significant costs to the extent there are unforeseen events which are not fully insured.
Our operating subsidiaries, particularly within our Energy and Mining segments, may become subject to catastrophic loss, which may cause operations to shut down or become significantly impaired. Our operating subsidiaries may also be subject to liability for hazards for which it cannot be insured, which could exceed policy limits or against which it may elect not to be insured due to high premium costs. Examples of such risks include but are not limited to industrial accidents, environmental

20


hazards, power outages, equipment failures, structural failures, flooding, unusual or unexpected geological conditions and severe weather conditions, among others. These events may damage or destroy properties, production facilities, transport facilities and equipment, as well as lead to personal injury or death, environmental damage, waste from intermediary products or resources, production or transportation delays and monetary losses or legal liability. Such damages are not limited to our operations or our employees and could significantly impact the surrounding areas. Operations at our subsidiaries could be curtailed, limited or completely shut down for an extended period of time, or indefinitely, as a result of one or more unforeseen events and circumstances, which may or may not be within our control, and which may not be adequately insured. Any one of these events and circumstances could have a material adverse impact on our operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Environmental laws and regulations could require our operating subsidiaries to make substantial capital expenditures to remain in compliance or to remediate current or future contamination that could give rise to material liabilities.
Several of our subsidiaries are subject to a variety of federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, including those governing the emission or discharge of pollutants into the environment, product specifications and the generation, treatment, storage, transportation, disposal and remediation of solid and hazardous wastes. Violations of these laws and regulations or permit conditions can result in substantial penalties, injunctive orders compelling installation of additional controls, civil and criminal sanctions, permit revocations and/or facility shutdowns.
In addition, new environmental laws and regulations, new interpretations of existing laws and regulations, increased governmental enforcement of laws and regulations or other developments could require our businesses to make additional unforeseen expenditures. Many of these laws and regulations are becoming increasingly stringent, and the cost of compliance with these requirements can be expected to increase over time. The requirements to be met, as well as the technology and length of time available to meet those requirements, continue to develop and change. These expenditures or costs for environmental compliance could have a material adverse effect on our operating subsidiaries’ results of operations, financial condition and profitability. Certain of our subsidiaries' facilities operate under a number of federal and state permits, licenses and approvals with terms and conditions containing a significant number of prescriptive limits and performance standards in order to operate. These permits, licenses, approvals, limits and standards require a significant amount of monitoring, record keeping and reporting in order to demonstrate compliance with the underlying permit, license, approval, limit or standard. Non-compliance or incomplete documentation of our subsidiaries' compliance status may result in the imposition of fines, penalties and injunctive relief. Additionally, there may be times when certain of our subsidiaries are unable to meet the standards and terms and conditions of our permits, licenses and approvals due to operational upsets or malfunctions, which may lead to the imposition of fines and penalties or operating restrictions that may have a material adverse effect on their ability to operate their facilities and accordingly on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. Refer to Note 17, "Commitments and Contingencies," to the consolidated financial statements for additional discussion of environmental matters affecting our businesses.
Our Energy segment's businesses are, and commodity prices are, cyclical and highly volatile, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our Energy segment's petroleum business' financial results are primarily affected by the margin between refined product prices and the prices for crude oil and other feedstocks. Historically, refining margins have been volatile, and are expected to continue to be volatile in the future. The petroleum business' cost to acquire feedstocks and the price at which it can ultimately sell refined products depend upon several factors beyond its control, including regional and global supply of and demand for crude oil, gasoline, diesel and other feedstocks and refined products. These in turn depend on, among other things, the availability and quantity of imports, the production levels of U.S. and international suppliers, levels of refined petroleum product inventories, productivity and growth (or the lack thereof) of U.S. and global economies, U.S. relationships with foreign governments, political affairs and the extent of governmental regulation.
Some of these factors can vary by region and may change quickly, adding to market volatility, while others may have longer-term effects on refining and marketing margins, which are uncertain. CVR Refining does not produce crude oil and must purchase all of the crude oil it refines long before it refines them and sell the refined products. Price level changes during the period between purchasing feedstocks and selling the refined petroleum products from these feedstocks could have a significant effect on our Energy segment's financial results and a decline in market prices may negatively impact the carrying value of its inventories.
Profitability is also impacted by the ability to purchase crude oil at a discount to benchmark crude oils, such as WTI, as the petroleum business does not produce any crude oil and must purchase all of the crude oil it refines. Crude oil differentials can fluctuate significantly based upon overall economic and crude oil market conditions. Adverse changes in crude oil differentials can adversely impact refining margins, earnings and cash flows. In addition, the petroleum business' purchases of crude oil, although based on WTI prices, have historically been at a discount to WTI because of the proximity of the refineries to the sources, existing logistics infrastructure and quality differences. Any change in the sources of crude oil, infrastructure or

21


logistical improvements or quality differences could result in a reduction of the petroleum business' historical discount to WTI and may result in a reduction of our Energy segment's cost advantage.
Volatile prices for natural gas and electricity affect the petroleum business' manufacturing and operating costs. Natural gas and electricity prices have been, and will continue to be, affected by supply and demand for fuel and utility services in both local and regional markets.
If sufficient Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) are unavailable for purchase or if our Energy segment’s petroleum business has to pay a significantly higher price for RINs, or if its petroleum business is otherwise unable to meet Renewable Fuel Standard mandates, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
The Environmental Protection Agency (the "EPA") has promulgated the Renewable Fuel Standards ("RFS"), which requires refiners to either blend "renewable fuels," such as ethanol and biodiesel, into their transportation fuels or purchase renewable fuel credits, known as RINs, in lieu of blending. Under the RFS, the volume of renewable fuels that refineries like Coffeyville and Wynnewood are obligated to blend into their finished petroleum products is adjusted annually by the EPA. The petroleum business is not able to blend the substantial majority of its transportation fuels, so it has to purchase RINs on the open market as well as waiver credits for cellulosic biofuels from the EPA, in order to comply with the RFS. The price of RINs has been extremely volatile as the EPA's proposed renewable fuel volume mandates approached and exceeded the "blend wall." The blend wall refers to the point at which the amount of ethanol blended into the transportation fuel supply exceeds the demand for transportation fuel containing such levels of ethanol. The blend wall is generally considered to be reached when more than 10% ethanol by volume ("E10 gasoline") is blended into transportation fuel.
The petroleum business cannot predict the future prices of RINs. The price of RINs has been extremely volatile over the last year. Additionally, the cost of RINs is dependent upon a variety of factors, which include the availability of RINs for purchase, the price at which RINs can be purchased, transportation fuel production levels, the mix of the petroleum business' petroleum products, as well as the fuel blending performed at the refineries and downstream terminals, all of which can vary significantly from period to period. However, the costs to obtain the necessary number of RINs and waiver credits could be material, if the price for RINs increases. Additionally, because the petroleum business does not produce renewable fuels, increasing the volume of renewable fuels that must be blended into its products displaces an increasing volume of the refineries' product pool, potentially resulting in lower earnings and materially adversely affecting the petroleum business' cash flows. If the demand for the petroleum business' transportation fuel decreases as a result of the use of increasing volumes of renewable fuels, increased fuel economy as a result of new EPA fuel economy standards, or other factors, the impact on its business could be material. If sufficient RINs are unavailable for purchase, if the petroleum business has to pay a significantly higher price for RINs or if the petroleum business is otherwise unable to meet the EPA's RFS mandates, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Commodity derivative contracts, particularly with respect to our Energy segment, may limit our potential gains, exacerbate potential losses and involve other risks.
Our Energy segment’s petroleum business may enter into commodity derivatives contracts to mitigate crack spread risk with respect to a portion of its expected refined products production. However, its hedging arrangements may fail to fully achieve these objectives for a variety of reasons, including its failure to have adequate hedging contracts, if any, in effect at any particular time and the failure of its hedging arrangements to produce the anticipated results. The petroleum business may not be able to procure adequate hedging arrangements due to a variety of factors. Moreover, such transactions may limit its ability to benefit from favorable changes in margins. In addition, the petroleum business' hedging activities may expose it to the risk of financial loss in certain circumstances, including instances in which:

the volumes of its actual use of crude oil or production of the applicable refined products is less than the volumes subject to the hedging arrangement;
accidents, interruptions in transportation, inclement weather or other events cause unscheduled shutdowns or otherwise adversely affect its refinery or suppliers or customers;
the counterparties to its futures contracts fail to perform under the contracts; or
a sudden, unexpected event materially impacts the commodity or crack spread subject to the hedging arrangement.
As a result, the effectiveness of CVR Energy's risk mitigation strategy could have a material adverse impact on our Energy segment's financial results and cash flows.
Climate change laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
The current administration has sought to implement a new or modified policy with respect to climate change. For example, the administration announced its intention to withdraw the United States from the Paris Climate Agreement, though the earliest possible effective date of withdrawal for the United States is November 2020. If efforts to address climate change resume, at the

22


federal legislative level, this could mean Congressional passage of legislation adopting some form of federal mandatory GHG emission reduction, such as a nationwide cap-and-trade program. It is also possible that Congress may pass alternative climate change bills that do not mandate a nationwide cap-and-trade program and instead focus on promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency.
In addition to potential federal legislation, a number of states have adopted regional greenhouse gas initiatives to reduce carbon dioxide and other GHG emissions. In 2007, a group of Midwest states, including Kansas (where CVR Energy has a refinery and nitrogen fertilizer facility), formed the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, which calls for the development of a cap-and-trade system to control GHG emissions and for the inventory of such emissions. However, the individual states that have signed on to the accord must adopt laws or regulations that implement the trading scheme before it becomes effective. To date, Kansas has taken no meaningful action to implement the accord, and it's unclear whether Kansas intends to do so in the future.
Alternatively, the EPA may take further steps to regulate GHG emissions, although at this time it is unclear to what extent the EPA will pursue climate change regulation. The implementation of EPA regulations and/or the passage of federal or state climate change legislation may result in increased costs to (i) operate and maintain certain of our subsidiaries' facilities, (ii) install new emission controls on certain of our subsidiaries' facilities and (iii) administer and manage any GHG emissions program. Increased costs associated with compliance with any current or future legislation or regulation of GHG emissions, if it occurs, may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
In addition, climate change legislation and regulations may result in increased costs not only for our business but also users of our refined and fertilizer products, thereby potentially decreasing demand for our products. Decreased demand for our products may have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Our subsidiaries' competitors may be larger and have greater financial resources and operational capabilities than our subsidiaries do, which may require them or us to invest significant additional capital in order to effectively compete. Our investments, or our subsidiaries' investments, may not achieve desired results.
Our operating subsidiaries face competitive pressures within markets in which they operate. We manage our subsidiaries with the objective of growing their value over time by, among other means, investing in and strengthening our subsidiaries' competitive advantages. Many factors, including availability of financial resources, supply chain capabilities and local market changes, may limit our ability to strengthen our subsidiaries' competitive advantages. In addition, competitors may be significantly larger than our subsidiaries are and may have greater financial resources and operational capabilities. Accordingly, our subsidiaries may require significant additional resources, which may not be available to them through internally generated cash flows. With respect to our Automotive segment, we have invested significant resources in various initiatives to remain competitive and stimulate growth. In addition, we will continue to consider strategic alternatives in our automotive aftermarket parts business to maximize value. If we are unable to implement these initiatives efficiently and effectively, or if these initiatives are unsuccessful, our consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Certain of our subsidiaries have operations in foreign countries which expose them to risks related to economic and political conditions, currency fluctuations, import/export restrictions, regulatory and other risks. 
Certain of our subsidiaries are global businesses and have manufacturing and distribution facilities in many countries. International operations are subject to certain risks including:
exposure to local economic conditions;
exposure to local political conditions (including the risk of seizure of assets by foreign governments);
currency exchange rate fluctuations (including, but not limited to, material exchange rate fluctuations, such as devaluations) and currency controls;
export and import restrictions;
restrictions on ability to repatriate foreign earnings;
labor unrest; and
compliance with U.S. laws such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and local laws prohibiting inappropriate payments.
The likelihood of such occurrences and their potential effect on our businesses are unpredictable and vary from country-to-country.
Certain of our businesses' operating entities report their financial condition and results of operations in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar. The reported results of these entities are translated into U.S. Dollars at the applicable exchange rates for reporting in our consolidated financial statements. As a result, fluctuations in the U.S. Dollar against foreign currencies will affect the value at which the results of these entities are included within our consolidated results. Our businesses are exposed to a risk of loss from changes in foreign exchange rates whenever they, or one of their foreign subsidiaries, enters into a purchase

23


or sales agreement in a currency other than its functional currency. Such changes in exchange rates could affect our businesses' financial condition or results of operations.
Certain of our businesses have substantial indebtedness, which could restrict their business activities and/or could subject them to significant interest rate risk.
Our subsidiaries' inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy their debt obligations, or to refinance their debt obligations on commercially reasonable terms, would have a material adverse effect on their businesses, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, covenants in debt instruments could limit their ability to engage in certain transactions and pursue their business strategies, which could adversely affect liquidity.
Our subsidiaries' indebtedness could:
limit their ability to borrow money for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements or other corporate purposes, guarantee additional debt or issue redeemable, convertible of preferred equity;
limit their ability to make distributions or prepay its debt, incur liens, enter into agreements that restrict distributions from restricted subsidiaries, sell or otherwise dispose of assets (including capital stock of subsidiaries), enter into transactions with affiliates and merger consolidate or sell substantially all of its assets;
require them to dedicate a substantial portion of its cash flow to payments on indebtedness, which would reduce the amount of cash flow available to fund working capital, capital expenditures, product development, and other corporate requirements;
increase their vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions; and
limit their ability to respond to business opportunities.
Certain of our subsidiaries' indebtedness accrue interest at variable rates. To the extent market interest rates rise, the cost of their debt would increase, adversely affecting their financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
A significant labor dispute involving any of our businesses or one or more of their customers or suppliers or that could otherwise affect our operations could adversely affect our financial performance.
A substantial number of our operating subsidiaries’ employees and the employees of its largest customers and suppliers are represented by labor unions under collective bargaining agreements. There can be no assurances that future negotiations with the unions will be resolved favorably or that our subsidiaries will not experience a work stoppage or disruption that could adversely affect its financial condition, operating results and cash flows. A labor dispute involving any of our businesses, particularly within our Energy segment, any of its customers or suppliers or any other suppliers to its customers or that otherwise affects our subsidiaries’ operations, or the inability by it, any of its customers or suppliers or any other suppliers to its customers to negotiate, upon the expiration of a labor agreement, an extension of such agreement or a new agreement on satisfactory terms could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows. In addition, if any of our subsidiaries’ significant customers experience a material work stoppage, the customer may halt or limit the purchase of its products. This could require certain businesses to shut down or significantly reduce production at facilities relating to such products, which could adversely affect our business.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.


24


Item 2. Properties.
Holding Company and Investment
Icahn Enterprises, Icahn Enterprises Holdings and our Investment segment operations are headquartered in New York, New York, which is leased office space.
Energy
CVR Energy is headquartered in Sugar Land, Texas, which is leased office space. Additionally, other administrative office space is leased in Kansas City, Kansas and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
CVR Energy owns and operates two oil refineries as well as office buildings located in Coffeyville, Kansas and Wynnewood, Oklahoma. CVR Energy also owns and operates two fertilizer plants in Coffeyville, Kansas and East Dubuque, Illinois. CVR Energy owns crude oil storage facilities in Kansas and Oklahoma, refined oil storage facilities at its Wynnewood, Oklahoma refinery location, and fertilizer storage facilities at its East Dubuque, Illinois fertilizer plant location. CVR Energy also leases additional crude oil storage facilities.
Automotive
Icahn Automotive is headquartered in Kennesaw, Georgia, which is leased office space. Icahn Automotive's operations include 1,352 company operated store locations, 848 franchise locations and 27 distributions centers throughout the United States. Approximately 90% of Icahn Automotive's facilities are leased and the remainder are owned.
Food Packaging
Viskase is headquartered in Lombard, Illinois. Viskase's operations include eleven manufacturing facilities, six distribution centers and three service centers throughout North America, Europe, South America and Asia.
Metals
PSC Metals is headquartered in Mayfield Heights, Ohio, which is leased office space. PSC Metals has additional administrative offices located in Nashville, Tennessee and North Olmsted, Ohio. PSC Metals' operations consist of 30 recycling yards, three secondary plate storage and distribution centers, two secondary pipe storage and distribution centers and two auto parts recycling warehouses located throughout the Midwestern and Southeastern United States.
Real Estate
Our Real Estate segment is headquartered in New York, New York. Our Real Estate segment's operations consist of 7 commercial rental real estate properties in the United States. Our Real Estate segment's operations also include development properties as well as golf and club operations in Cape Cod, Massachusetts and Vero Beach, Florida. In addition, our Real Estate segment has a hotel, timeshare and casino resort property in Aruba as well as a casino property in Atlantic City, New Jersey, which ceased operations in 2014.
Home Fashion
WPH is headquartered in New York, New York. WPH's operations include a manufacturing and distribution facility in Chipley, Florida and a manufacturing facility in Bahrain, both of which are owned facilities. WPH owns office and retail store space in Valley, Alabama and Lumberton, North Carolina where it operates two outlet stores. WPH also leases retail store space in Chipley, Florida and leases various additional administrative office space primarily throughout the southern United States.
Mining
Ferrous Resources is headquartered in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, which is a leased office space. Ferrous Resources' operations consist of six iron mineral resource properties in Brazil.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
We are, and will continue to be, subject to litigation from time to time in the ordinary course of our business. We also incorporate by reference into this Part I, Item 3 of this Report, the information regarding the lawsuits and proceedings described and referenced in Note 17, "Commitments and Contingencies," to the consolidated financial statements as set forth in Item 8 of this Report.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.

25


PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Security Holder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market Information
Icahn Enterprises' depositary units are traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “IEP.” The range of high and low sales prices for our depositary units for each quarter during 2018 and 2017 are as follows:
2018
 
High
 
Low
First Quarter
 
$
62.79

 
$
53.29

Second Quarter
 
73.23

 
57.00

Third Quarter
 
81.88

 
62.20

Fourth Quarter
 
74.69

 
50.33

 
 
 
 
 
2017
 
High
 
Low
First Quarter
 
$
63.96

 
$
50.17

Second Quarter
 
53.85

 
47.06

Third Quarter
 
56.40

 
49.13

Fourth Quarter
 
59.88

 
51.01

Holders of Record
As of December 31, 2018, there were approximately 2,000 record holders of Icahn Enterprises' depositary units including multiple beneficial holders at depositories, banks and brokers listed as a single record holder in the street name of each respective depository, bank or broker.
There were no repurchases of Icahn Enterprises' depositary units during 2018 or 2017.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table sets forth information regarding outstanding unit option awards, and depository units available for future issuance, under the Icahn Enterprises L.P. 2017 Long Term Incentive Plan (the “2017 Incentive Plan”) as of December 31, 2018:
Plan Category
 
Number of Securities to be Issued Upon Exercise of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights
(a)
 
Weighted-Average Exercise Price of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights
(b)
 
Number of Securities Remaining Available for Future Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans (Excluding Securities Reflected in Column (a))
(c)
2017 Incentive Plan
 
15,704

 
$
51.08

 
953,554

During the first quarter of 2017, the board of directors of the general partner of Icahn Enterprises unanimously approved and adopted the 2017 Incentive Plan, which became effective during the first quarter of 2017 subject to the approval by holders of a majority of Icahn Enterprises depositary units. The 2017 Incentive Plan permits us to issue depositary units and grant options, restricted units or other unit-based awards to all of our, and our affiliates', employees, consultants, members and partners, as well as the three non-employee directors of our general partner. One million of Icahn Enterprises' depositary units were initially available under the 2017 Incentive Plan.

26


Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
The following tables contain our selected historical consolidated financial data from continuing operations, which should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto, and Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contained in this Report. The selected financial data has been derived from our historical financial statements, recasted for discontinued operations, as applicable. The comparability of our selected financial data from continuing operations presented below is affected by, among other factors, (i) the performance of the Investment Funds, (ii) the results of our Energy segment's operations, impacted by the relationship of its refined product prices and prices for crude oil and other feedstocks, (iii) impairment charges, primarily in our Automotive segment in 2018, our Energy segment in 2016, 2015 and 2014 and our Mining segment in 2015, (iv) acquisitions of businesses, primarily in our Automotive segment during 2017, 2016 and 2015, (v) gains on dispositions of assets, primarily in our Railcar and Real Estate segments in 2017, including the impact of the disposed income generating assets on subsequent operations, (vi) our Holding Company's unrealized equity investment gains and losses and (vii) the enactment of tax legislation in the United States in 2017.
 
Icahn Enterprises
 
Icahn Enterprises Holdings
 
As of/Year Ended December 31,
 
As of/Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
(in millions, except per unit data)
 
(in millions)
Statement of Operations Data From Continuing Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
$
10,576

 
$
9,306

 
$
7,740

 
$
6,771

 
$
10,376

 
$
10,576

 
$
9,306

 
$
7,740

 
$
6,771

 
$
10,376

Other revenues from operations
647

 
743

 
840

 
418

 
383

 
647

 
743

 
840

 
418

 
383

Net gain (loss) from investment activities
322

 
302

 
(1,373
)
 
(987
)
 
(564
)
 
322

 
302

 
(1,373
)
 
(987
)
 
(564
)
Gain on disposition of assets, net
84

 
2,163

 
6

 
40

 
18

 
84

 
2,163

 
6

 
40

 
18

Net income (loss)
282

 
2,357

 
(2,285
)
 
(1,941
)
 
(775
)
 
283

 
2,359

 
(2,284
)
 
(1,940
)
 
(774
)
Less: Income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests
495

 
84

 
(1,158
)
 
(938
)
 
(271
)
 
495

 
84

 
(1,158
)
 
(938
)
 
(271
)
Net (loss) income attributable to Icahn Enterprises/Icahn Enterprises Holdings
$
(213
)
 
$
2,273

 
$
(1,127
)
 
$
(1,003
)
 
$
(504
)
 
$
(212
)
 
$
2,275

 
$
(1,126
)
 
$
(1,002
)
 
$
(503
)
Net (loss) income attributable to Icahn Enterprises/Icahn Enterprises Holdings allocable to:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Limited partners
$
(209
)
 
$
2,228

 
$
(1,105
)
 
$
(983
)
 
$
(494
)
 
$
(210
)
 
$
2,252

 
$
(1,115
)
 
$
(992
)
 
$
(498
)
General partner
(4
)
 
45

 
(22
)
 
(20
)
 
(10
)
 
(2
)
 
23

 
(11
)
 
(10
)
 
(5
)
 
$
(213
)
 
$
2,273

 
$
(1,127
)
 
$
(1,003
)
 
$
(504
)
 
$
(212
)
 
$
2,275

 
$
(1,126
)
 
$
(1,002
)
 
$
(503
)
Basic and diluted (loss) income per LP unit
$
(1.16
)
 
$
13.84

 
$
(8.07
)
 
$
(7.80
)
 
$
(4.15
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic and diluted weighted average LP units outstanding
180

 
161

 
137

 
126

 
119

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash distributions declared per LP unit
$
7.00

 
$
6.00

 
$
6.00

 
$
6.00

 
$
6.00

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
2,656

 
$
1,164

 
$
1,114

 
$
1,369

 
$
2,292

 
$
2,656

 
$
1,164

 
$
1,114

 
$
1,369

 
$
2,292

Investments
8,337

 
10,015

 
9,559

 
15,002

 
14,149

 
8,337

 
10,015

 
9,559

 
15,002

 
14,149

Property, plant and equipment, net
4,703

 
5,186

 
5,905

 
5,668

 
5,456

 
4,703

 
5,186

 
5,905

 
5,668

 
5,456

Assets held for sale
333

 
10,263

 
11,493

 
10,054

 
9,765

 
333

 
10,263

 
11,493

 
10,054

 
9,765

Total assets
23,396

 
31,801

 
33,371

 
36,407

 
35,743

 
23,428

 
31,833

 
33,399

 
36,434

 
35,769

Deferred tax liability
676

 
732

 
1,147

 
791

 
904

 
676

 
732

 
1,147

 
791

 
904

Due to brokers
141

 
1,057

 
3,725

 
7,317

 
5,197

 
141

 
1,057

 
3,725

 
7,317

 
5,197

Liabilities held for sale
112

 
7,010

 
9,103

 
7,521

 
7,029

 
112

 
7,010

 
9,103

 
7,521

 
7,029

Debt
7,326

 
7,372

 
7,236

 
8,556

 
8,161

 
7,330

 
7,377

 
7,239

 
8,559

 
8,164

Equity attributable to Icahn Enterprises/Icahn Enterprises Holdings
6,529

 
5,106

 
2,154

 
3,987

 
5,443

 
6,557

 
5,133

 
2,179

 
4,011

 
5,466


27


Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The following discussion is intended to assist you in understanding our present business and the results of operations together with our present financial condition. This section should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes contained in this Report.

Executive Overview
Introduction
Icahn Enterprises L.P. (“Icahn Enterprises”) is a master limited partnership formed in Delaware on February 17, 1987. Icahn Enterprises Holdings L.P. (“Icahn Enterprises Holdings”) is a limited partnership formed in Delaware on February 17, 1987. References to "we," "our" or "us" herein include both Icahn Enterprises and Icahn Enterprises Holdings and their subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires.
Icahn Enterprises owns a 99% limited partner interest in Icahn Enterprises Holdings. Icahn Enterprises Holdings and its subsidiaries own substantially all of the assets and liabilities of Icahn Enterprises and conduct substantially all of its operations. Therefore, the financial results of Icahn Enterprises and Icahn Enterprises Holdings are substantially the same, with differences relating primarily to allocations to the general and limited partners. We do not discuss Icahn Enterprises and Icahn Enterprises Holdings separately unless we believe it is necessary to an understanding of the businesses.
We are a diversified holding company owning subsidiaries currently engaged in the following continuing operating businesses: Investment, Energy, Automotive, Food Packaging, Metals, Real Estate, Home Fashion and Mining. We also report the results of our Holding Company, which includes the results of certain subsidiaries of Icahn Enterprises and Icahn Enterprises Holdings (unless otherwise noted), and investment activity and expenses associated with our Holding Company. Our historical results also report the results of our Railcar segment through the date we sold our last remaining railcars on lease, which occurred in the third quarter of 2018.
Significant Transactions and Developments
Significant transactions and developments affecting our results of operations and liquidity for the year ended December 31, 2018 are summarized as follows:
Sale of Discontinued Operations. During the fourth quarter of 2018, we closed on the sales of Federal-Mogul LLC ("Federal-Mogul"), Tropicana Entertainment Inc. ("Tropicana") and American Railcar Industries, Inc. ("ARI"). As a result of the transactions, our Holding Company received approximately $3.2 billion in aggregate cash proceeds and approximately $1.2 billion of fair value equity in Tenneco, Inc., resulting in the recognition of aggregate pre-tax gains on the sales of discontinued operations attributable to Icahn Enterprises of approximately $1.4 billion.
Pending Sale of Ferrous Resources. On December 5, 2018, we announced a definitive agreement to sell Ferrous Resources Ltd. for total consideration of $550 million. The transaction is expected to close in the first half of 2019.


28


Results of Operations
Consolidated Financial Results
Our operating businesses comprise consolidated subsidiaries which operate in various industries and are managed on a decentralized basis. Revenues for our continuing operating businesses primarily consist of net sales of various products, services revenue, franchisor operations and leasing of real estate. Due to the structure and nature of our business, we primarily discuss the results of operations by individual reporting segment in order to better understand our consolidated operating performance. Certain other financial information is discussed on a consolidated basis following our segment discussion, including other revenues and expenses included in continuing operations as well as our results from discontinued operations. In addition to the summarized financial results below, refer to Note 12, "Segment and Geographic Reporting," to the consolidated financial statements for a reconciliation of each of our reporting segment's results of continuing operations to our consolidated results.
The comparability of our summarized consolidated financial results presented below is affected by, among other factors, (i) the performance of the Investment Funds, (ii) the results of our Energy segment's operations, impacted by the relationship of its refined product prices and prices for crude oil and other feedstocks, (iii) impairment charges, primarily in our Automotive segment in 2018 and our Energy segment in 2016, (iv) acquisitions of businesses, primarily in our Automotive segment during 2017 and 2016, (v) gains on dispositions of assets, primarily in our Railcar and Real Estate segments in 2017, including the impact of the disposed income generating assets on subsequent operations, (vi) our Holding Company's unrealized equity investment gains and losses and (vii) the enactment of tax legislation in the United States in 2017. Refer to our respective segment discussions and "Other Consolidated Results of Operations," below for further discussion.
 
Revenues
 
Net Income (Loss) From Continuing Operations
 
Net Income (Loss) From Continuing Operations Attributable to Icahn Enterprises
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(in millions)
Investment
$
737

 
$
297

 
$
(1,223
)
 
$
679

 
$
118

 
$
(1,487
)
 
$
319

 
$
80

 
$
(604
)
Holding Company
(291
)
 
68

 
21

 
(639
)
 
355

 
(287
)
 
(638
)
 
355

 
(287
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Operating Segments:
Energy
7,135

 
5,988

 
4,783

 
379

 
275

 
(604
)
 
238

 
229

 
(327
)
Automotive
2,856

 
2,728

 
2,503

 
(230
)
 
(51
)
 
19

 
(230
)
 
(51
)
 
19

Food Packaging
379

 
389

 
328

 
(15
)
 
(6
)
 
8

 
(12
)
 
(5
)
 
6

Metals
467

 
408

 
269

 
5

 
(44
)
 
(20
)
 
5

 
(44
)
 
(20
)
Real Estate
212

 
628

 
89

 
112

 
549

 
5

 
112

 
549

 
5

Home Fashion
171

 
183

 
196

 
(11
)
 
(20
)
 
(12
)
 
(11
)
 
(20
)
 
(12
)
Mining
106

 
93

 
63

 
1

 
10

 
(24
)
 
3

 
9

 
(19
)
Railcar
5

 
1,837

 
350

 
1

 
1,171

 
117

 
1

 
1,171

 
112

Other operating segments
11,331

 
12,254

 
8,581

 
242

 
1,884

 
(511
)
 
106

 
1,838

 
(236
)
Consolidated
$
11,777

 
$
12,619

 
$
7,379

 
$
282

 
$
2,357

 
$
(2,285
)
 
$
(213
)
 
$
2,273

 
$
(1,127
)

Investment
We invest our proprietary capital through various private investment funds (the "Investment Funds"). As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, we had investments with a fair market value of approximately $5.1 billion and $3.0 billion, respectively, in the Investment Funds. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the total fair market value of investments in the Investment Funds made by Mr. Icahn and his affiliates (excluding us) was approximately $5.0 billion and $4.4 billion, respectively.
Our Investment segment's results of operations are reflected in net income (loss) in the consolidated statements of operations. Our Investment segment's net income (loss) is driven by the amount of funds allocated to the Investment Funds and the performance of the underlying investments in the Investment Funds. Future funds allocated to the Investment Funds may increase or decrease based on the contributions and redemptions by our Holding Company and by Mr. Icahn and his affiliates. Additionally, historical performance results of the Investment Funds are not indicative of future results as past market

29


conditions, investment opportunities and investment decisions may not occur in the future. Changes in general market conditions coupled with changes in exposure to short and long positions have significant impact on our Investment segment's results of operations and the comparability of results of operations year over year and as such, future results of operations will be impacted by our future exposures and future market conditions, which may not be consistent with prior trends. Refer to the "Investment Segment Liquidity" section of our "Liquidity and Capital Resources" discussion for additional information regarding our Investment segment's exposure as of December 31, 2018.
For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, our Investment Funds' returns were 7.9%, 2.1% and (20.3)%, respectively. Our Investment Funds' returns represent a weighted-average composite of the average returns, net of expenses. The following table sets forth the performance attribution for the Investment Funds' returns:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Long positions
(0.8
)%
 
5.4
 %
 
16.3
 %
Short positions
7.8
 %
 
(3.0
)%
 
(34.1
)%
Other
0.9
 %
 
(0.3
)%
 
(2.5
)%
 
7.9
 %
 
2.1
 %
 
(20.3
)%
The following table presents net income (loss) for our Investment segment:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(in millions)
Long positions
$
(329
)
 
$
2,035

 
$
552

Short positions
931